Django2.0手册:如何使用 WSGI 进行部署

Django’s primary deployment platform is WSGI, the Python standard for web
servers and applications.

Django’s startproject management command sets up a simple default
WSGI configuration for you, which you can tweak as needed for your project,
and direct any WSGI-compliant application server to use.

Django includes getting-started documentation for the following WSGI servers:

The application object¶

The key concept of deploying with WSGI is the application callable which
the application server uses to communicate with your code. It’s commonly
provided as an object named application in a Python module accessible to
the server.

The startproject command creates a file
<project_name>/wsgi.py that contains such an application callable.

It’s used both by Django’s development server and in production WSGI
deployments.

WSGI servers obtain the path to the application callable from their
configuration. Django’s built-in server, namely the runserver
command, reads it from the WSGI_APPLICATION setting. By default, it’s
set to <project_name>.wsgi.application, which points to the application
callable in <project_name>/wsgi.py.

配置 settings 模块¶

When the WSGI server loads your application, Django needs to import the
settings module — that’s where your entire application is defined.

Django uses the DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE environment variable to
locate the appropriate settings module. It must contain the dotted path to the
settings module. You can use a different value for development and production;
it all depends on how you organize your settings.

If this variable isn’t set, the default wsgi.py sets it to
mysite.settings, where mysite is the name of your project. That’s how
runserver discovers the default settings file by default.

Note

Since environment variables are process-wide, this doesn’t work when you
run multiple Django sites in the same process. This happens with mod_wsgi.

To avoid this problem, use mod_wsgi’s daemon mode with each site in its
own daemon process, or override the value from the environment by
enforcing os.environ["DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE"] = "mysite.settings" in
your wsgi.py.

应用 WSGI 中间件¶

To apply WSGI middleware you can simply wrap the application object. For
instance you could add these lines at the bottom of wsgi.py:

from helloworld.wsgi import HelloWorldApplication
application = HelloWorldApplication(application)

You could also replace the Django WSGI application with a custom WSGI
application that later delegates to the Django WSGI application, if you want
to combine a Django application with a WSGI application of another framework.