Django2.0手册:Managing static files (e.g. images, JavaScript, CSS)

Websites generally need to serve additional files such as images, JavaScript,
or CSS. In Django, we refer to these files as “static files”. Django provides
django.contrib.staticfiles to help you manage them.

This page describes how you can serve these static files.

Configuring static files¶

  1. Make sure that django.contrib.staticfiles is included in your
    INSTALLED_APPS.

  2. In your settings file, define STATIC_URL, for example:

    STATIC_URL = '/static/'
    
  3. In your templates, use the static template tag to build the URL for
    the given relative path using the configured STATICFILES_STORAGE.

    {% load static %}
    <img src="{% static "my_app/example.jpg" %}" alt="My image"/>
    
  4. Store your static files in a folder called static in your app. For
    example my_app/static/my_app/example.jpg.

Serving the files

In addition to these configuration steps, you’ll also need to actually
serve the static files.

During development, if you use django.contrib.staticfiles, this will
be done automatically by runserver when DEBUG is set
to True (see django.contrib.staticfiles.views.serve()).

This method is grossly inefficient and probably insecure,
so it is unsuitable for production.

See Deploying static files for proper strategies to serve
static files in production environments.

Your project will probably also have static assets that aren’t tied to a
particular app. In addition to using a static/ directory inside your apps,
you can define a list of directories (STATICFILES_DIRS) in your
settings file where Django will also look for static files. For example:

STATICFILES_DIRS = [
    os.path.join(BASE_DIR, "static"),
    '/var/www/static/',
]

See the documentation for the STATICFILES_FINDERS setting for
details on how staticfiles finds your files.

静态文件命名空间

Now we might be able to get away with putting our static files directly
in my_app/static/ (rather than creating another my_app
subdirectory), but it would actually be a bad idea. Django will use the
first static file it finds whose name matches, and if you had a static file
with the same name in a different application, Django would be unable to
distinguish between them. We need to be able to point Django at the right
one, and the easiest way to ensure this is by namespacing them. That is,
by putting those static files inside another directory named for the
application itself.

Serving static files during development¶

If you use django.contrib.staticfiles as explained above,
runserver will do this automatically when DEBUG is set
to True. If you don’t have django.contrib.staticfiles in
INSTALLED_APPS, you can still manually serve static files using the
django.views.static.serve() view.

This is not suitable for production use! For some common deployment
strategies, see Deploying static files.

For example, if your STATIC_URL is defined as /static/, you can do
this by adding the following snippet to your urls.py:

from django.conf import settings
from django.conf.urls.static import static

urlpatterns = [
    # ... the rest of your URLconf goes here ...
] + static(settings.STATIC_URL, document_root=settings.STATIC_ROOT)

Note

This helper function works only in debug mode and only if
the given prefix is local (e.g. /static/) and not a URL (e.g.
http://static.example.com/).

Also this helper function only serves the actual STATIC_ROOT
folder; it doesn’t perform static files discovery like
django.contrib.staticfiles.

Serving files uploaded by a user during development¶

During development, you can serve user-uploaded media files from
MEDIA_ROOT using the django.views.static.serve() view.

This is not suitable for production use! For some common deployment
strategies, see Deploying static files.

For example, if your MEDIA_URL is defined as /media/, you can do
this by adding the following snippet to your urls.py:

from django.conf import settings
from django.conf.urls.static import static

urlpatterns = [
    # ... the rest of your URLconf goes here ...
] + static(settings.MEDIA_URL, document_root=settings.MEDIA_ROOT)

Note

This helper function works only in debug mode and only if
the given prefix is local (e.g. /media/) and not a URL (e.g.
http://media.example.com/).

测试中¶

When running tests that use actual HTTP requests instead of the built-in
testing client (i.e. when using the built-in LiveServerTestCase) the static assets need to be served along
the rest of the content so the test environment reproduces the real one as
faithfully as possible, but LiveServerTestCase has only very basic static
file-serving functionality: It doesn’t know about the finders feature of the
staticfiles application and assumes the static content has already been
collected under STATIC_ROOT.

Because of this, staticfiles ships its own
django.contrib.staticfiles.testing.StaticLiveServerTestCase, a subclass
of the built-in one that has the ability to transparently serve all the assets
during execution of these tests in a way very similar to what we get at
development time with DEBUG = True, i.e. without having to collect them
using collectstatic first.

Deployment¶

django.contrib.staticfiles provides a convenience management command
for gathering static files in a single directory so you can serve them easily.

  1. Set the STATIC_ROOT setting to the directory from which you’d
    like to serve these files, for example:

    STATIC_ROOT = "/var/www/example.com/static/"
    
  2. Run the collectstatic management command:

    $ python manage.py collectstatic
    

    This will copy all files from your static folders into the
    STATIC_ROOT directory.

  3. Use a web server of your choice to serve the
    files. Deploying static files covers some common deployment
    strategies for static files.

Learn more¶

This document has covered the basics and some common usage patterns. For
complete details on all the settings, commands, template tags, and other pieces
included in django.contrib.staticfiles, see the staticfiles
reference
.