Django2.0手册:The Django admin site



One of the most powerful parts of Django is the automatic admin interface. It
reads metadata from your models to provide a quick, model-centric interface
where trusted users can manage content on your site. The admin’s recommended
use is limited to an organization’s internal management tool. It’s not intended
for building your entire front end around.

The admin has many hooks for customization, but beware of trying to use those
hooks exclusively. If you need to provide a more process-centric interface
that abstracts away the implementation details of database tables and fields,
then it’s probably time to write your own views.

In this document we discuss how to activate, use, and customize Django’s admin
interface.

Overview¶

The admin is enabled in the default project template used by
startproject.

For reference, here are the requirements:

  1. Add 'django.contrib.admin' to your INSTALLED_APPS setting.
  2. The admin has four dependencies – django.contrib.auth,
    django.contrib.contenttypes,
    django.contrib.messages and
    django.contrib.sessions. If these applications are not
    in your INSTALLED_APPS list, add them.
  3. Add django.contrib.auth.context_processors.auth and
    django.contrib.messages.context_processors.messages to
    the 'context_processors' option of the DjangoTemplates backend
    defined in your TEMPLATES as well as
    django.contrib.auth.middleware.AuthenticationMiddleware and
    django.contrib.messages.middleware.MessageMiddleware to
    MIDDLEWARE. These are all active by default, so you only need to
    do this if you’ve manually tweaked the settings.
  4. Determine which of your application’s models should be editable in the
    admin interface.
  5. For each of those models, optionally create a ModelAdmin class that
    encapsulates the customized admin functionality and options for that
    particular model.
  6. Instantiate an AdminSite and tell it about each of your models and
    ModelAdmin classes.
  7. Hook the AdminSite instance into your URLconf.

After you’ve taken these steps, you’ll be able to use your Django admin site
by visiting the URL you hooked it into (/admin/, by default). If you need
to create a user to login with, you can use the createsuperuser
command.

Other topics¶

See also

For information about serving the static files (images, JavaScript, and
CSS) associated with the admin in production, see Serving files.

Having problems? Try FAQ: 管理.

ModelAdmin objects¶

class ModelAdmin[source]

The ModelAdmin class is the representation of a model in the admin
interface. Usually, these are stored in a file named admin.py in your
application. Let’s take a look at a very simple example of
the ModelAdmin:

from django.contrib import admin
from myproject.myapp.models import Author

class AuthorAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    pass
admin.site.register(Author, AuthorAdmin)

Do you need a ModelAdmin object at all?

In the preceding example, the ModelAdmin class doesn’t define any
custom values (yet). As a result, the default admin interface will be
provided. If you are happy with the default admin interface, you don’t
need to define a ModelAdmin object at all — you can register the
model class without providing a ModelAdmin description. The
preceding example could be simplified to:

from django.contrib import admin
from myproject.myapp.models import Author

admin.site.register(Author)

The register decorator¶

register(*models, site=django.admin.sites.site)[source]

There is also a decorator for registering your ModelAdmin classes:

from django.contrib import admin
from .models import Author

@admin.register(Author)
class AuthorAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    pass

It’s given one or more model classes to register with the ModelAdmin.
If you’re using a custom AdminSite, pass it using the site keyword
argument:

from django.contrib import admin
from .models import Author, Editor, Reader
from myproject.admin_site import custom_admin_site

@admin.register(Author, Reader, Editor, site=custom_admin_site)
class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    pass

You can’t use this decorator if you have to reference your model admin
class in its __init__() method, e.g.
super(PersonAdmin, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs). You can use
super().__init__(*args, **kwargs).

Discovery of admin files¶

When you put 'django.contrib.admin' in your INSTALLED_APPS
setting, Django automatically looks for an admin module in each
application and imports it.

class apps.AdminConfig

This is the default AppConfig class for the admin.
It calls autodiscover() when Django starts.

class apps.SimpleAdminConfig

This class works like AdminConfig,
except it doesn’t call autodiscover().

autodiscover()[source]

This function attempts to import an admin module in each installed
application. Such modules are expected to register models with the admin.

Typically you won’t need to call this function directly as
AdminConfig calls it when Django starts.

If you are using a custom AdminSite, it is common to import all of the
ModelAdmin subclasses into your code and register them to the custom
AdminSite. In that case, in order to disable auto-discovery, you should
put 'django.contrib.admin.apps.SimpleAdminConfig' instead of
'django.contrib.admin' in your INSTALLED_APPS setting.

ModelAdmin options¶

The ModelAdmin is very flexible. It has several options for dealing with
customizing the interface. All options are defined on the ModelAdmin
subclass:

from django.contrib import admin

class AuthorAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    date_hierarchy = 'pub_date'
ModelAdmin.actions

A list of actions to make available on the change list page. See
Admin actions for details.

ModelAdmin.actions_on_top
ModelAdmin.actions_on_bottom

Controls where on the page the actions bar appears. By default, the admin
changelist displays actions at the top of the page (actions_on_top = True;
actions_on_bottom = False
).

ModelAdmin.actions_selection_counter

Controls whether a selection counter is displayed next to the action dropdown.
By default, the admin changelist will display it
(actions_selection_counter = True).

ModelAdmin.date_hierarchy

Set date_hierarchy to the name of a DateField or DateTimeField
in your model, and the change list page will include a date-based drilldown
navigation by that field.

Example:

date_hierarchy = 'pub_date'

You can also specify a field on a related model using the __ lookup,
for example:

date_hierarchy = 'author__pub_date'

This will intelligently populate itself based on available data,
e.g. if all the dates are in one month, it’ll show the day-level
drill-down only.

Changed in Django 1.11:

The ability to reference fields on related models was added.

Note

date_hierarchy uses QuerySet.datetimes() internally. Please refer
to its documentation for some caveats when time zone support is
enabled (USE_TZ = True).

ModelAdmin.empty_value_display

This attribute overrides the default display value for record’s fields that
are empty (None, empty string, etc.). The default value is - (a
dash). For example:

from django.contrib import admin

class AuthorAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    empty_value_display = '-empty-'

You can also override empty_value_display for all admin pages with
AdminSite.empty_value_display, or for specific fields like this:

from django.contrib import admin

class AuthorAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    fields = ('name', 'title', 'view_birth_date')

    def view_birth_date(self, obj):
        return obj.birth_date

    view_birth_date.empty_value_display = '???'
ModelAdmin.exclude

This attribute, if given, should be a list of field names to exclude from
the form.

For example, let’s consider the following model:

from django.db import models

class Author(models.Model):
    name = models.CharField(max_length=100)
    title = models.CharField(max_length=3)
    birth_date = models.DateField(blank=True, null=True)

If you want a form for the Author model that includes only the name
and title fields, you would specify fields or exclude like
this:

from django.contrib import admin

class AuthorAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    fields = ('name', 'title')

class AuthorAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    exclude = ('birth_date',)

Since the Author model only has three fields, name, title, and
birth_date, the forms resulting from the above declarations will
contain exactly the same fields.

ModelAdmin.fields

Use the fields option to make simple layout changes in the forms on
the “add” and “change” pages such as showing only a subset of available
fields, modifying their order, or grouping them into rows. For example, you
could define a simpler version of the admin form for the
django.contrib.flatpages.models.FlatPage model as follows:

class FlatPageAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    fields = ('url', 'title', 'content')

In the above example, only the fields url, title and content
will be displayed, sequentially, in the form. fields can contain
values defined in ModelAdmin.readonly_fields to be displayed as
read-only.

For more complex layout needs, see the fieldsets option.

The fields option, unlike list_display, may only
contain names of fields on the model or the form specified by
form. It may contain callables only if they are listed
in readonly_fields.

To display multiple fields on the same line, wrap those fields in their own
tuple. In this example, the url and title fields will display on the
same line and the content field will be displayed below them on its
own line:

class FlatPageAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    fields = (('url', 'title'), 'content')

Note

This fields option should not be confused with the fields
dictionary key that is within the fieldsets option,
as described in the next section.

If neither fields nor fieldsets options are present,
Django will default to displaying each field that isn’t an AutoField and
has editable=True, in a single fieldset, in the same order as the fields
are defined in the model.

ModelAdmin.fieldsets

Set fieldsets to control the layout of admin “add” and “change” pages.

fieldsets is a list of two-tuples, in which each two-tuple represents a
<fieldset> on the admin form page. (A <fieldset> is a “section” of
the form.)

The two-tuples are in the format (name, field_options), where name
is a string representing the title of the fieldset and field_options is
a dictionary of information about the fieldset, including a list of fields
to be displayed in it.

A full example, taken from the
django.contrib.flatpages.models.FlatPage model:

from django.contrib import admin

class FlatPageAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    fieldsets = (
        (None, {
            'fields': ('url', 'title', 'content', 'sites')
        }),
        ('Advanced options', {
            'classes': ('collapse',),
            'fields': ('registration_required', 'template_name'),
        }),
    )

This results in an admin page that looks like:

http://www.ainoob.cn/docs/django2.0/static/fieldsets.png

If neither fieldsets nor fields options are present,
Django will default to displaying each field that isn’t an AutoField and
has editable=True, in a single fieldset, in the same order as the fields
are defined in the model.

The field_options dictionary can have the following keys:

  • fields

    A tuple of field names to display in this fieldset. This key is
    required.

    Example:

    {
    'fields': ('first_name', 'last_name', 'address', 'city', 'state'),
    }
    

    As with the fields option, to display multiple
    fields on the same line, wrap those fields in their own tuple. In this
    example, the first_name and last_name fields will display on
    the same line:

    {
    'fields': (('first_name', 'last_name'), 'address', 'city', 'state'),
    }
    

    fields can contain values defined in
    readonly_fields to be displayed as read-only.

    If you add the name of a callable to fields, the same rule applies
    as with the fields option: the callable must be
    listed in readonly_fields.

  • classes

    A list or tuple containing extra CSS classes to apply to the fieldset.

    Example:

    {
    'classes': ('wide', 'extrapretty'),
    }
    

    Two useful classes defined by the default admin site stylesheet are
    collapse and wide. Fieldsets with the collapse style
    will be initially collapsed in the admin and replaced with a small
    “click to expand” link. Fieldsets with the wide style will be
    given extra horizontal space.

  • description

    A string of optional extra text to be displayed at the top of each
    fieldset, under the heading of the fieldset. This string is not
    rendered for TabularInline due to its
    layout.

    Note that this value is not HTML-escaped when it’s displayed in
    the admin interface. This lets you include HTML if you so desire.
    Alternatively you can use plain text and
    django.utils.html.escape() to escape any HTML special
    characters.

ModelAdmin.filter_horizontal

By default, a ManyToManyField is displayed in
the admin site with a <select multiple>. However, multiple-select boxes
can be difficult to use when selecting many items. Adding a
ManyToManyField to this list will instead use
a nifty unobtrusive JavaScript “filter” interface that allows searching
within the options. The unselected and selected options appear in two boxes
side by side. See filter_vertical to use a vertical
interface.

ModelAdmin.filter_vertical

Same as filter_horizontal, but uses a vertical display
of the filter interface with the box of unselected options appearing above
the box of selected options.

ModelAdmin.form

By default a ModelForm is dynamically created for your model. It is
used to create the form presented on both the add/change pages. You can
easily provide your own ModelForm to override any default form behavior
on the add/change pages. Alternatively, you can customize the default
form rather than specifying an entirely new one by using the
ModelAdmin.get_form() method.

For an example see the section Adding custom validation to the admin.

Note

If you define the Meta.model attribute on a
ModelForm, you must also define the
Meta.fields attribute (or the Meta.exclude attribute). However,
since the admin has its own way of defining fields, the Meta.fields
attribute will be ignored.

If the ModelForm is only going to be used for the admin, the easiest
solution is to omit the Meta.model attribute, since ModelAdmin
will provide the correct model to use. Alternatively, you can set
fields = [] in the Meta class to satisfy the validation on the
ModelForm.

Note

If your ModelForm and ModelAdmin both define an exclude
option then ModelAdmin takes precedence:

from django import forms
from django.contrib import admin
from myapp.models import Person

class PersonForm(forms.ModelForm):

    class Meta:
        model = Person
        exclude = ['name']

class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    exclude = ['age']
    form = PersonForm

In the above example, the “age” field will be excluded but the “name”
field will be included in the generated form.

ModelAdmin.formfield_overrides

This provides a quick-and-dirty way to override some of the
Field options for use in the admin.
formfield_overrides is a dictionary mapping a field class to a dict of
arguments to pass to the field at construction time.

Since that’s a bit abstract, let’s look at a concrete example. The most
common use of formfield_overrides is to add a custom widget for a
certain type of field. So, imagine we’ve written a RichTextEditorWidget
that we’d like to use for large text fields instead of the default
<textarea>. Here’s how we’d do that:

from django.contrib import admin
from django.db import models

# Import our custom widget and our model from where they're defined
from myapp.models import MyModel
from myapp.widgets import RichTextEditorWidget

class MyModelAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    formfield_overrides = {
        models.TextField: {'widget': RichTextEditorWidget},
    }

Note that the key in the dictionary is the actual field class, not a
string. The value is another dictionary; these arguments will be passed to
the form field’s __init__() method. See The Forms API for
details.

Warning

If you want to use a custom widget with a relation field (i.e.
ForeignKey or
ManyToManyField), make sure you haven’t
included that field’s name in raw_id_fields, radio_fields, or
autocomplete_fields.

formfield_overrides won’t let you change the widget on relation
fields that have raw_id_fields, radio_fields, or
autocomplete_fields set. That’s because raw_id_fields,
radio_fields, and autocomplete_fields imply custom widgets of
their own.

ModelAdmin.inlines

See InlineModelAdmin objects below as well as
ModelAdmin.get_formsets_with_inlines().

ModelAdmin.list_display

Set list_display to control which fields are displayed on the change
list page of the admin.

Example:

list_display = ('first_name', 'last_name')

If you don’t set list_display, the admin site will display a single
column that displays the __str__() representation of each object.

You have four possible values that can be used in list_display:

  • A field of the model. For example:

    class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        list_display = ('first_name', 'last_name')
    
  • A callable that accepts one parameter for the model instance. For
    example:

    def upper_case_name(obj):
        return ("%s %s" % (obj.first_name, obj.last_name)).upper()
    upper_case_name.short_description = 'Name'
    
    class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        list_display = (upper_case_name,)
    
  • A string representing an attribute on the ModelAdmin. This
    behaves same as the callable. For example:

    class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        list_display = ('upper_case_name',)
    
        def upper_case_name(self, obj):
            return ("%s %s" % (obj.first_name, obj.last_name)).upper()
        upper_case_name.short_description = 'Name'
    
  • A string representing an attribute on the model. This behaves almost
    the same as the callable, but self in this context is the model
    instance. Here’s a full model example:

    from django.contrib import admin
    from django.db import models
    
    class Person(models.Model):
        name = models.CharField(max_length=50)
        birthday = models.DateField()
    
        def decade_born_in(self):
            return self.birthday.strftime('%Y')[:3] + "0's"
        decade_born_in.short_description = 'Birth decade'
    
    class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        list_display = ('name', 'decade_born_in')
    

A few special cases to note about list_display:

  • If the field is a ForeignKey, Django will display the
    __str__() of the related object.

  • ManyToManyField fields aren’t supported, because that would
    entail executing a separate SQL statement for each row in the table.
    If you want to do this nonetheless, give your model a custom method,
    and add that method’s name to list_display. (See below for more
    on custom methods in list_display.)

  • If the field is a BooleanField or NullBooleanField, Django
    will display a pretty “on” or “off” icon instead of True or
    False.

  • If the string given is a method of the model, ModelAdmin or a
    callable, Django will HTML-escape the output by default. To escape
    user input and allow your own unescaped tags, use
    format_html().

    Here’s a full example model:

    from django.contrib import admin
    from django.db import models
    from django.utils.html import format_html
    
    class Person(models.Model):
        first_name = models.CharField(max_length=50)
        last_name = models.CharField(max_length=50)
        color_code = models.CharField(max_length=6)
    
        def colored_name(self):
            return format_html(
                '<span style="color: #{};">{} {}</span>',
                self.color_code,
                self.first_name,
                self.last_name,
            )
    
    class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        list_display = ('first_name', 'last_name', 'colored_name')
    
  • As some examples have already demonstrated, when using a callable, a
    model method, or a ModelAdmin method, you can customize the column’s
    title by adding a short_description attribute to the callable.

  • If the value of a field is None, an empty string, or an iterable
    without elements, Django will display - (a dash). You can override
    this with AdminSite.empty_value_display:

    from django.contrib import admin
    
    admin.site.empty_value_display = '(None)'
    

    You can also use ModelAdmin.empty_value_display:

    class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        empty_value_display = 'unknown'
    

    Or on a field level:

    class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        list_display = ('name', 'birth_date_view')
    
        def birth_date_view(self, obj):
             return obj.birth_date
    
        birth_date_view.empty_value_display = 'unknown'
    
  • If the string given is a method of the model, ModelAdmin or a
    callable that returns True or False Django will display a pretty
    “on” or “off” icon if you give the method a boolean attribute
    whose value is True.

    Here’s a full example model:

    from django.contrib import admin
    from django.db import models
    
    class Person(models.Model):
        first_name = models.CharField(max_length=50)
        birthday = models.DateField()
    
        def born_in_fifties(self):
            return self.birthday.strftime('%Y')[:3] == '195'
        born_in_fifties.boolean = True
    
    class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        list_display = ('name', 'born_in_fifties')
    
  • The __str__() method is just as valid in list_display as any
    other model method, so it’s perfectly OK to do this:

    list_display = ('__str__', 'some_other_field')
    
  • Usually, elements of list_display that aren’t actual database
    fields can’t be used in sorting (because Django does all the sorting
    at the database level).

    However, if an element of list_display represents a certain
    database field, you can indicate this fact by setting the
    admin_order_field attribute of the item.

    For example:

    from django.contrib import admin
    from django.db import models
    from django.utils.html import format_html
    
    class Person(models.Model):
        first_name = models.CharField(max_length=50)
        color_code = models.CharField(max_length=6)
    
        def colored_first_name(self):
            return format_html(
                '<span style="color: #{};">{}</span>',
                self.color_code,
                self.first_name,
            )
    
        colored_first_name.admin_order_field = 'first_name'
    
    class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        list_display = ('first_name', 'colored_first_name')
    

    The above will tell Django to order by the first_name field when
    trying to sort by colored_first_name in the admin.

    To indicate descending order with admin_order_field you can use a
    hyphen prefix on the field name. Using the above example, this would
    look like:

    colored_first_name.admin_order_field = '-first_name'
    

    admin_order_field supports query lookups to sort by values on related
    models. This example includes an “author first name” column in the list
    display and allows sorting it by first name:

    class Blog(models.Model):
        title = models.CharField(max_length=255)
        author = models.ForeignKey(Person, on_delete=models.CASCADE)
    
    class BlogAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        list_display = ('title', 'author', 'author_first_name')
    
        def author_first_name(self, obj):
            return obj.author.first_name
    
        author_first_name.admin_order_field = 'author__first_name'
    
  • Elements of list_display can also be properties. Please note however,
    that due to the way properties work in Python, setting
    short_description on a property is only possible when using the
    property() function and not with the @property decorator.

    For example:

    class Person(models.Model):
        first_name = models.CharField(max_length=50)
        last_name = models.CharField(max_length=50)
    
        def my_property(self):
            return self.first_name + ' ' + self.last_name
        my_property.short_description = "Full name of the person"
    
        full_name = property(my_property)
    
    class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        list_display = ('full_name',)
    
  • The field names in list_display will also appear as CSS classes in
    the HTML output, in the form of column-<field_name> on each <th>
    element. This can be used to set column widths in a CSS file for example.

  • Django will try to interpret every element of list_display in this
    order:

    • A field of the model.
    • A callable.
    • A string representing a ModelAdmin attribute.
    • A string representing a model attribute.

    For example if you have first_name as a model field and
    as a ModelAdmin attribute, the model field will be used.

Use list_display_links to control if and which fields in
list_display should be linked to the “change” page for an object.

By default, the change list page will link the first column — the first
field specified in list_display — to the change page for each item.
But list_display_links lets you change this:

  • Set it to None to get no links at all.

  • Set it to a list or tuple of fields (in the same format as
    list_display) whose columns you want converted to links.

    You can specify one or many fields. As long as the fields appear in
    list_display, Django doesn’t care how many (or how few) fields are
    linked. The only requirement is that if you want to use
    list_display_links in this fashion, you must define list_display.

In this example, the first_name and last_name fields will be
linked on the change list page:

class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    list_display = ('first_name', 'last_name', 'birthday')
    list_display_links = ('first_name', 'last_name')

In this example, the change list page grid will have no links:

class AuditEntryAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    list_display = ('timestamp', 'message')
    list_display_links = None

ModelAdmin.list_editable

Set list_editable to a list of field names on the model which will
allow editing on the change list page. That is, fields listed in
list_editable will be displayed as form widgets on the change list
page, allowing users to edit and save multiple rows at once.

Note

list_editable interacts with a couple of other options in
particular ways; you should note the following rules:

  • Any field in list_editable must also be in list_display.
    You can’t edit a field that’s not displayed!
  • The same field can’t be listed in both list_editable and
    list_display_links — a field can’t be both a form and
    a link.

You’ll get a validation error if either of these rules are broken.

ModelAdmin.list_filter

Set list_filter to activate filters in the right sidebar of the change
list page of the admin, as illustrated in the following screenshot:

http://www.ainoob.cn/docs/django2.0/static/list_filter.png

list_filter should be a list or tuple of elements, where each element
should be of one of the following types:

  • a field name, where the specified field should be either a
    BooleanField, CharField, DateField, DateTimeField,
    IntegerField, ForeignKey or ManyToManyField, for example:

    class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        list_filter = ('is_staff', 'company')
    

    Field names in list_filter can also span relations
    using the __ lookup, for example:

    class PersonAdmin(admin.UserAdmin):
        list_filter = ('company__name',)
    
  • a class inheriting from django.contrib.admin.SimpleListFilter,
    which you need to provide the title and parameter_name
    attributes to and override the lookups and queryset methods,
    e.g.:

    from datetime import date
    
    from django.contrib import admin
    from django.utils.translation import gettext_lazy as _
    
    class DecadeBornListFilter(admin.SimpleListFilter):
        # Human-readable title which will be displayed in the
        # right admin sidebar just above the filter options.
        title = _('decade born')
    
        # Parameter for the filter that will be used in the URL query.
        parameter_name = 'decade'
    
        def lookups(self, request, model_admin):
            """
            Returns a list of tuples. The first element in each
            tuple is the coded value for the option that will
            appear in the URL query. The second element is the
            human-readable name for the option that will appear
            in the right sidebar.
            """
            return (
                ('80s', _('in the eighties')),
                ('90s', _('in the nineties')),
            )
    
        def queryset(self, request, queryset):
            """
            Returns the filtered queryset based on the value
            provided in the query string and retrievable via
            `self.value()`.
            """
            # Compare the requested value (either '80s' or '90s')
            # to decide how to filter the queryset.
            if self.value() == '80s':
                return queryset.filter(birthday__gte=date(1980, 1, 1),
                                        birthday__lte=date(1989, 12, 31))
            if self.value() == '90s':
                return queryset.filter(birthday__gte=date(1990, 1, 1),
                                        birthday__lte=date(1999, 12, 31))
    
    class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        list_filter = (DecadeBornListFilter,)
    

    Note

    As a convenience, the HttpRequest object is passed to the
    lookups and queryset methods, for example:

    class AuthDecadeBornListFilter(DecadeBornListFilter):
    
        def lookups(self, request, model_admin):
            if request.user.is_superuser:
                return super().lookups(request, model_admin)
    
        def queryset(self, request, queryset):
            if request.user.is_superuser:
                return super().queryset(request, queryset)
    

    Also as a convenience, the ModelAdmin object is passed to
    the lookups method, for example if you want to base the
    lookups on the available data:

    class AdvancedDecadeBornListFilter(DecadeBornListFilter):
    
        def lookups(self, request, model_admin):
            """
            Only show the lookups if there actually is
            anyone born in the corresponding decades.
            """
            qs = model_admin.get_queryset(request)
            if qs.filter(birthday__gte=date(1980, 1, 1),
                          birthday__lte=date(1989, 12, 31)).exists():
                yield ('80s', _('in the eighties'))
            if qs.filter(birthday__gte=date(1990, 1, 1),
                          birthday__lte=date(1999, 12, 31)).exists():
                yield ('90s', _('in the nineties'))
    
  • a tuple, where the first element is a field name and the second
    element is a class inheriting from
    django.contrib.admin.FieldListFilter, for example:

    class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        list_filter = (
            ('is_staff', admin.BooleanFieldListFilter),
        )
    

    You can limit the choices of a related model to the objects involved in
    that relation using RelatedOnlyFieldListFilter:

    class BookAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
        list_filter = (
            ('author', admin.RelatedOnlyFieldListFilter),
        )
    

    Assuming author is a ForeignKey to a User model, this will
    limit the list_filter choices to the users who have written a book
    instead of listing all users.

    Note

    The FieldListFilter API is considered internal and might be
    changed.

List filter’s typically appear only if the filter has more than one choice.
A filter’s has_output() method controls whether or not it appears.

It is possible to specify a custom template for rendering a list filter:

class FilterWithCustomTemplate(admin.SimpleListFilter):
    template = "custom_template.html"

See the default template provided by Django (admin/filter.html) for
a concrete example.

ModelAdmin.list_max_show_all

Set list_max_show_all to control how many items can appear on a “Show
all” admin change list page. The admin will display a “Show all” link on the
change list only if the total result count is less than or equal to this
setting. By default, this is set to 200.

ModelAdmin.list_per_page

Set list_per_page to control how many items appear on each paginated
admin change list page. By default, this is set to 100.

Set list_select_related to tell Django to use
select_related() in retrieving
the list of objects on the admin change list page. This can save you a
bunch of database queries.

The value should be either a boolean, a list or a tuple. Default is
False.

When value is True, select_related() will always be called. When
value is set to False, Django will look at list_display and call
select_related() if any ForeignKey is present.

If you need more fine-grained control, use a tuple (or list) as value for
list_select_related. Empty tuple will prevent Django from calling
select_related at all. Any other tuple will be passed directly to
select_related as parameters. For example:

class ArticleAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    list_select_related = ('author', 'category')

will call select_related('author', 'category').

If you need to specify a dynamic value based on the request, you can
implement a get_list_select_related() method.

ModelAdmin.ordering

Set ordering to specify how lists of objects should be ordered in the
Django admin views. This should be a list or tuple in the same format as a
model’s ordering parameter.

If this isn’t provided, the Django admin will use the model’s default
ordering.

If you need to specify a dynamic order (for example depending on user or
language) you can implement a get_ordering() method.

ModelAdmin.paginator

The paginator class to be used for pagination. By default,
django.core.paginator.Paginator is used. If the custom paginator
class doesn’t have the same constructor interface as
django.core.paginator.Paginator, you will also need to
provide an implementation for ModelAdmin.get_paginator().

ModelAdmin.prepopulated_fields

Set prepopulated_fields to a dictionary mapping field names to the
fields it should prepopulate from:

class ArticleAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    prepopulated_fields = {"slug": ("title",)}

When set, the given fields will use a bit of JavaScript to populate from
the fields assigned. The main use for this functionality is to
automatically generate the value for SlugField fields from one or more
other fields. The generated value is produced by concatenating the values
of the source fields, and then by transforming that result into a valid
slug (e.g. substituting dashes for spaces; lowercasing ASCII letters; and
removing various English stop words such as ‘a’, ‘an’, ‘as’, and similar).

Fields are prepopulated on add forms but not on change forms. It’s usually
undesired that slugs change after an object is created (which would cause
an object’s URL to change if the slug is used in it).

prepopulated_fields doesn’t accept DateTimeField, ForeignKey,
OneToOneField, and ManyToManyField fields.

ModelAdmin.preserve_filters

The admin now preserves filters on the list view after creating, editing
or deleting an object. You can restore the previous behavior of clearing
filters by setting this attribute to False.

ModelAdmin.radio_fields

By default, Django’s admin uses a select-box interface (<select>) for
fields that are ForeignKey or have choices set. If a field is
present in radio_fields, Django will use a radio-button interface
instead. Assuming group is a ForeignKey on the Person model:

class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    radio_fields = {"group": admin.VERTICAL}

You have the choice of using HORIZONTAL or VERTICAL from the
django.contrib.admin module.

Don’t include a field in radio_fields unless it’s a ForeignKey or has
choices set.

ModelAdmin.autocomplete_fields
New in Django 2.0.

autocomplete_fields is a list of ForeignKey and/or
ManyToManyField fields you would like to change to Select2 autocomplete inputs.

By default, the admin uses a select-box interface (<select>) for
those fields. Sometimes you don’t want to incur the overhead of selecting
all the related instances to display in the dropdown.

The Select2 input looks similar to the default input but comes with a
search feature that loads the options asynchronously. This is faster and
more user-friendly if the related model has many instances.

You must define search_fields on the related object’s
ModelAdmin because the autocomplete search uses it.

Ordering and pagination of the results are controlled by the related
ModelAdmin‘s get_ordering() and
get_paginator() methods.

In the following example, ChoiceAdmin has an autocomplete field for the
ForeignKey to the Question. The results are filtered by the
question_text field and ordered by the date_created field:

class QuestionAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    ordering = ['date_created']
    search_fields = ['question_text']

class ChoiceAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    autocomplete_fields = ['question']

Performance considerations for large datasets

Ordering using ModelAdmin.ordering may cause performance
problems as sorting on a large queryset will be slow.

Also, if your search fields include fields that aren’t indexed by the
database, you might encounter poor performance on extremely large
tables.

For those cases, it’s a good idea to write your own
ModelAdmin.get_search_results() implementation using a
full-text indexed search.

You may also want to change the Paginator on very large tables
as the default paginator always performs a count() query.
For example, you could override the default implementation of the
Paginator.count property.

ModelAdmin.raw_id_fields

By default, Django’s admin uses a select-box interface (<select>) for
fields that are ForeignKey. Sometimes you don’t want to incur the
overhead of having to select all the related instances to display in the
drop-down.

raw_id_fields is a list of fields you would like to change
into an Input widget for either a ForeignKey or
ManyToManyField:

class ArticleAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    raw_id_fields = ("newspaper",)

The raw_id_fields Input widget should contain a primary key if the
field is a ForeignKey or a comma separated list of values if the field
is a ManyToManyField. The raw_id_fields widget shows a magnifying
glass button next to the field which allows users to search for and select
a value:

http://www.ainoob.cn/docs/django2.0/static/raw_id_fields.png

ModelAdmin.readonly_fields

By default the admin shows all fields as editable. Any fields in this
option (which should be a list or tuple) will display its data
as-is and non-editable; they are also excluded from the
ModelForm used for creating and editing. Note that
when specifying ModelAdmin.fields or ModelAdmin.fieldsets
the read-only fields must be present to be shown (they are ignored
otherwise).

If readonly_fields is used without defining explicit ordering through
ModelAdmin.fields or ModelAdmin.fieldsets they will be
added last after all editable fields.

A read-only field can not only display data from a model’s field, it can
also display the output of a model’s method or a method of the
ModelAdmin class itself. This is very similar to the way
ModelAdmin.list_display behaves. This provides an easy way to use
the admin interface to provide feedback on the status of the objects being
edited, for example:

from django.contrib import admin
from django.utils.html import format_html_join
from django.utils.safestring import mark_safe

class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    readonly_fields = ('address_report',)

    def address_report(self, instance):
        # assuming get_full_address() returns a list of strings
        # for each line of the address and you want to separate each
        # line by a linebreak
        return format_html_join(
            mark_safe('<br/>'),
            '{}',
            ((line,) for line in instance.get_full_address()),
        ) or mark_safe("<span class='errors'>I can't determine this address.</span>")

    # short_description functions like a model field's verbose_name
    address_report.short_description = "Address"
ModelAdmin.save_as

Set save_as to enable a “save as new” feature on admin change forms.

Normally, objects have three save options: “Save”, “Save and continue
editing”, and “Save and add another”. If save_as is True, “Save
and add another” will be replaced by a “Save as new” button that creates a
new object (with a new ID) rather than updating the existing object.

By default, save_as is set to False.

ModelAdmin.save_as_continue

When save_as=True, the default redirect after saving the
new object is to the change view for that object. If you set
save_as_continue=False, the redirect will be to the changelist view.

By default, save_as_continue is set to True.

ModelAdmin.save_on_top

Set save_on_top to add save buttons across the top of your admin change
forms.

Normally, the save buttons appear only at the bottom of the forms. If you
set save_on_top, the buttons will appear both on the top and the
bottom.

By default, save_on_top is set to False.

ModelAdmin.search_fields

Set search_fields to enable a search box on the admin change list page.
This should be set to a list of field names that will be searched whenever
somebody submits a search query in that text box.

These fields should be some kind of text field, such as CharField or
TextField. You can also perform a related lookup on a ForeignKey or
ManyToManyField with the lookup API “follow” notation:

search_fields = ['foreign_key__related_fieldname']

For example, if you have a blog entry with an author, the following
definition would enable searching blog entries by the email address of the
author:

search_fields = ['user__email']

When somebody does a search in the admin search box, Django splits the
search query into words and returns all objects that contain each of the
words, case insensitive, where each word must be in at least one of
search_fields. For example, if search_fields is set to
['first_name', 'last_name'] and a user searches for john lennon,
Django will do the equivalent of this SQL WHERE clause:

WHERE (first_name ILIKE '%john%' OR last_name ILIKE '%john%')
AND (first_name ILIKE '%lennon%' OR last_name ILIKE '%lennon%')

For faster and/or more restrictive searches, prefix the field name
with an operator:

^

Use the ‘^’ operator to match starting at the beginning of the
field. For example, if search_fields is set to
['^first_name', '^last_name'] and a user searches for
john lennon, Django will do the equivalent of this SQL WHERE
clause:

WHERE (first_name ILIKE 'john%' OR last_name ILIKE 'john%')
AND (first_name ILIKE 'lennon%' OR last_name ILIKE 'lennon%')

This query is more efficient than the normal '%john%' query,
because the database only needs to check the beginning of a column’s
data, rather than seeking through the entire column’s data. Plus, if
the column has an index on it, some databases may be able to use the
index for this query, even though it’s a LIKE query.

=

Use the ‘=’ operator for case-insensitive exact matching. For
example, if search_fields is set to
['=first_name', '=last_name'] and a user searches for
john lennon, Django will do the equivalent of this SQL
WHERE clause:

WHERE (first_name ILIKE 'john' OR last_name ILIKE 'john')
AND (first_name ILIKE 'lennon' OR last_name ILIKE 'lennon')

Note that the query input is split by spaces, so, following this
example, it’s currently not possible to search for all records in which
first_name is exactly 'john winston' (containing a space).

@
Using the ‘@’ operator to perform a full text match. This is like the
default search method but uses an index. Currently this is only
available for MySQL.

If you need to customize search you can use
ModelAdmin.get_search_results() to provide additional or alternate
search behavior.

ModelAdmin.show_full_result_count

Set show_full_result_count to control whether the full count of objects
should be displayed on a filtered admin page (e.g. 99 results (103 total)).
If this option is set to False, a text like 99 results (Show all)
is displayed instead.

The default of show_full_result_count=True generates a query to perform
a full count on the table which can be expensive if the table contains a
large number of rows.

ModelAdmin.view_on_site

Set view_on_site to control whether or not to display the “View on site” link.
This link should bring you to a URL where you can display the saved object.

This value can be either a boolean flag or a callable. If True (the
default), the object’s get_absolute_url()
method will be used to generate the url.

If your model has a get_absolute_url() method
but you don’t want the “View on site” button to appear, you only need to set
view_on_site to False:

from django.contrib import admin

class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    view_on_site = False

In case it is a callable, it accepts the model instance as a parameter.
For example:

from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import reverse

class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    def view_on_site(self, obj):
        url = reverse('person-detail', kwargs={'slug': obj.slug})
        return 'https://example.com' + url

Custom template options

The Overriding admin templates section describes how to override or extend
the default admin templates. Use the following options to override the default
templates used by the ModelAdmin views:

ModelAdmin.add_form_template

Path to a custom template, used by add_view().

ModelAdmin.change_form_template

Path to a custom template, used by change_view().

ModelAdmin.change_list_template

Path to a custom template, used by changelist_view().

ModelAdmin.delete_confirmation_template

Path to a custom template, used by delete_view() for displaying a
confirmation page when deleting one or more objects.

ModelAdmin.delete_selected_confirmation_template

Path to a custom template, used by the delete_selected action method
for displaying a confirmation page when deleting one or more objects. See
the actions documentation.

ModelAdmin.object_history_template

Path to a custom template, used by history_view().

ModelAdmin.popup_response_template
New in Django 1.11.

Path to a custom template, used by response_add(),
response_change(), and response_delete().

ModelAdmin methods¶

Warning

When overriding ModelAdmin.save_model() and
ModelAdmin.delete_model(), your code must save/delete the
object. They aren’t meant for veto purposes, rather they allow you to
perform extra operations.

ModelAdmin.save_model(request, obj, form, change)[source]

The save_model method is given the HttpRequest, a model instance,
a ModelForm instance, and a boolean value based on whether it is adding
or changing the object. Overriding this method allows doing pre- or
post-save operations. Call super().save_model() to save the object
using Model.save().

For example to attach request.user to the object prior to saving:

from django.contrib import admin

class ArticleAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    def save_model(self, request, obj, form, change):
        obj.user = request.user
        super().save_model(request, obj, form, change)
ModelAdmin.delete_model(request, obj)[source]

The delete_model method is given the HttpRequest and a model
instance. Overriding this method allows doing pre- or post-delete
operations. Call super().delete_model() to delete the object using
Model.delete().

ModelAdmin.save_formset(request, form, formset, change)[source]

The save_formset method is given the HttpRequest, the parent
ModelForm instance and a boolean value based on whether it is adding or
changing the parent object.

For example, to attach request.user to each changed formset
model instance:

class ArticleAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    def save_formset(self, request, form, formset, change):
        instances = formset.save(commit=False)
        for obj in formset.deleted_objects:
            obj.delete()
        for instance in instances:
            instance.user = request.user
            instance.save()
        formset.save_m2m()

See also Saving objects in the formset.

ModelAdmin.get_ordering(request)

The get_ordering method takes a request as parameter and
is expected to return a list or tuple for ordering similar
to the ordering attribute. For example:

class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):

    def get_ordering(self, request):
        if request.user.is_superuser:
            return ['name', 'rank']
        else:
            return ['name']
ModelAdmin.get_search_results(request, queryset, search_term)[source]

The get_search_results method modifies the list of objects displayed
into those that match the provided search term. It accepts the request, a
queryset that applies the current filters, and the user-provided search term.
It returns a tuple containing a queryset modified to implement the search, and
a boolean indicating if the results may contain duplicates.

The default implementation searches the fields named in ModelAdmin.search_fields.

This method may be overridden with your own custom search method. For
example, you might wish to search by an integer field, or use an external
tool such as Solr or Haystack. You must establish if the queryset changes
implemented by your search method may introduce duplicates into the results,
and return True in the second element of the return value.

For example, to search by name and age, you could use:

class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    list_display = ('name', 'age')
    search_fields = ('name',)

    def get_search_results(self, request, queryset, search_term):
        queryset, use_distinct = super().get_search_results(request, queryset, search_term)
        try:
            search_term_as_int = int(search_term)
        except ValueError:
            pass
        else:
            queryset |= self.model.objects.filter(age=search_term_as_int)
        return queryset, use_distinct

This implementation is more efficient than search_fields =
('name', '=age')
which results in a string comparison for the numeric
field, for example ... OR UPPER("polls_choice"."votes"::text) = UPPER('4')
on PostgreSQL.

The save_related method is given the HttpRequest, the parent
ModelForm instance, the list of inline formsets and a boolean value
based on whether the parent is being added or changed. Here you can do any
pre- or post-save operations for objects related to the parent. Note
that at this point the parent object and its form have already been saved.

ModelAdmin.get_autocomplete_fields(request)
New in Django 2.0.

The get_autocomplete_fields() method is given the HttpRequest and is
expected to return a list or tuple of field names that will be
displayed with an autocomplete widget as described above in the
ModelAdmin.autocomplete_fields section.

ModelAdmin.get_readonly_fields(request, obj=None)

The get_readonly_fields method is given the HttpRequest and the
obj being edited (or None on an add form) and is expected to return
a list or tuple of field names that will be displayed as read-only,
as described above in the ModelAdmin.readonly_fields section.

ModelAdmin.get_prepopulated_fields(request, obj=None)

The get_prepopulated_fields method is given the HttpRequest and the
obj being edited (or None on an add form) and is expected to return
a dictionary, as described above in the ModelAdmin.prepopulated_fields
section.

ModelAdmin.get_list_display(request)[source]

The get_list_display method is given the HttpRequest and is
expected to return a list or tuple of field names that will be
displayed on the changelist view as described above in the
ModelAdmin.list_display section.

The get_list_display_links method is given the HttpRequest and
the list or tuple returned by ModelAdmin.get_list_display().
It is expected to return either None or a list or tuple of field
names on the changelist that will be linked to the change view, as described
in the ModelAdmin.list_display_links section.

ModelAdmin.get_exclude(request, obj=None)
New in Django 1.11.

The get_exclude method is given the HttpRequest and the obj
being edited (or None on an add form) and is expected to return a list
of fields, as described in ModelAdmin.exclude.

ModelAdmin.get_fields(request, obj=None)

The get_fields method is given the HttpRequest and the obj
being edited (or None on an add form) and is expected to return a list
of fields, as described above in the ModelAdmin.fields section.

ModelAdmin.get_fieldsets(request, obj=None)

The get_fieldsets method is given the HttpRequest and the obj
being edited (or None on an add form) and is expected to return a list
of two-tuples, in which each two-tuple represents a <fieldset> on the
admin form page, as described above in the ModelAdmin.fieldsets section.

ModelAdmin.get_list_filter(request)[source]

The get_list_filter method is given the HttpRequest and is expected
to return the same kind of sequence type as for the
list_filter attribute.

The get_list_select_related method is given the HttpRequest and
should return a boolean or list as ModelAdmin.list_select_related
does.

ModelAdmin.get_search_fields(request)[source]

The get_search_fields method is given the HttpRequest and is expected
to return the same kind of sequence type as for the
search_fields attribute.

ModelAdmin.get_inline_instances(request, obj=None)[source]

The get_inline_instances method is given the HttpRequest and the
obj being edited (or None on an add form) and is expected to return
a list or tuple of InlineModelAdmin
objects, as described below in the InlineModelAdmin
section. For example, the following would return inlines without the default
filtering based on add, change, and delete permissions:

class MyModelAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    inlines = (MyInline,)

    def get_inline_instances(self, request, obj=None):
        return [inline(self.model, self.admin_site) for inline in self.inlines]

If you override this method, make sure that the returned inlines are
instances of the classes defined in inlines or you might encounter
a “Bad Request” error when adding related objects.

ModelAdmin.get_urls()[source]

The get_urls method on a ModelAdmin returns the URLs to be used for
that ModelAdmin in the same way as a URLconf. Therefore you can extend
them as documented in URL调度器:

from django.contrib import admin
from django.template.response import TemplateResponse
from django.urls import path

class MyModelAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    def get_urls(self):
        urls = super().get_urls()
        my_urls = [
            path('my_view/', self.my_view),
        ]
        return my_urls + urls

    def my_view(self, request):
        # ...
        context = dict(
           # Include common variables for rendering the admin template.
           self.admin_site.each_context(request),
           # Anything else you want in the context...
           key=value,
        )
        return TemplateResponse(request, "sometemplate.html", context)

If you want to use the admin layout, extend from admin/base_site.html:

{% extends "admin/base_site.html" %}
{% block content %}
...
{% endblock %}

Note

Notice that the custom patterns are included before the regular admin
URLs: the admin URL patterns are very permissive and will match nearly
anything, so you’ll usually want to prepend your custom URLs to the
built-in ones.

In this example, my_view will be accessed at
/admin/myapp/mymodel/my_view/ (assuming the admin URLs are included
at /admin/.)

However, the self.my_view function registered above suffers from two
problems:

  • It will not perform any permission checks, so it will be accessible
    to the general public.
  • It will not provide any header details to prevent caching. This means
    if the page retrieves data from the database, and caching middleware is
    active, the page could show outdated information.

Since this is usually not what you want, Django provides a convenience
wrapper to check permissions and mark the view as non-cacheable. This
wrapper is AdminSite.admin_view() (i.e. self.admin_site.admin_view
inside a ModelAdmin instance); use it like so:

class MyModelAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    def get_urls(self):
        urls = super().get_urls()
        my_urls = [
            path('my_view/', self.admin_site.admin_view(self.my_view))
        ]
        return my_urls + urls

Notice the wrapped view in the fifth line above:

path('my_view/', self.admin_site.admin_view(self.my_view))

This wrapping will protect self.my_view from unauthorized access and
will apply the django.views.decorators.cache.never_cache() decorator to
make sure it is not cached if the cache middleware is active.

If the page is cacheable, but you still want the permission check to be
performed, you can pass a cacheable=True argument to
AdminSite.admin_view():

path('my_view/', self.admin_site.admin_view(self.my_view, cacheable=True))

ModelAdmin views have model_admin attributes. Other
AdminSite views have admin_site attributes.

ModelAdmin.get_form(request, obj=None, **kwargs)[source]

Returns a ModelForm class for use in the admin add
and change views, see add_view() and change_view().

The base implementation uses modelform_factory()
to subclass form, modified by attributes such as fields
and exclude. So, for example, if you wanted to offer additional
fields to superusers, you could swap in a different base form like so:

class MyModelAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    def get_form(self, request, obj=None, **kwargs):
        if request.user.is_superuser:
            kwargs['form'] = MySuperuserForm
        return super().get_form(request, obj, **kwargs)

You may also simply return a custom ModelForm class
directly.

ModelAdmin.get_formsets_with_inlines(request, obj=None)[source]

Yields (FormSet, InlineModelAdmin) pairs for use in admin add
and change views.

For example if you wanted to display a particular inline only in the change
view, you could override get_formsets_with_inlines as follows:

class MyModelAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    inlines = [MyInline, SomeOtherInline]

    def get_formsets_with_inlines(self, request, obj=None):
        for inline in self.get_inline_instances(request, obj):
            # hide MyInline in the add view
            if isinstance(inline, MyInline) and obj is None:
                continue
            yield inline.get_formset(request, obj), inline
ModelAdmin.formfield_for_foreignkey(db_field, request, **kwargs)

The formfield_for_foreignkey method on a ModelAdmin allows you to
override the default formfield for a foreign keys field. For example, to
return a subset of objects for this foreign key field based on the user:

class MyModelAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    def formfield_for_foreignkey(self, db_field, request, **kwargs):
        if db_field.name == "car":
            kwargs["queryset"] = Car.objects.filter(owner=request.user)
        return super().formfield_for_foreignkey(db_field, request, **kwargs)

This uses the HttpRequest instance to filter the Car foreign key
field to only display the cars owned by the User instance.

ModelAdmin.formfield_for_manytomany(db_field, request, **kwargs)

Like the formfield_for_foreignkey method, the
formfield_for_manytomany method can be overridden to change the
default formfield for a many to many field. For example, if an owner can
own multiple cars and cars can belong to multiple owners — a many to
many relationship — you could filter the Car foreign key field to
only display the cars owned by the User:

class MyModelAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    def formfield_for_manytomany(self, db_field, request, **kwargs):
        if db_field.name == "cars":
            kwargs["queryset"] = Car.objects.filter(owner=request.user)
        return super().formfield_for_manytomany(db_field, request, **kwargs)
ModelAdmin.formfield_for_choice_field(db_field, request, **kwargs)

Like the formfield_for_foreignkey and formfield_for_manytomany
methods, the formfield_for_choice_field method can be overridden to
change the default formfield for a field that has declared choices. For
example, if the choices available to a superuser should be different than
those available to regular staff, you could proceed as follows:

class MyModelAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    def formfield_for_choice_field(self, db_field, request, **kwargs):
        if db_field.name == "status":
            kwargs['choices'] = (
                ('accepted', 'Accepted'),
                ('denied', 'Denied'),
            )
            if request.user.is_superuser:
                kwargs['choices'] += (('ready', 'Ready for deployment'),)
        return super().formfield_for_choice_field(db_field, request, **kwargs)

Note

Any choices attribute set on the formfield will be limited to the
form field only. If the corresponding field on the model has choices
set, the choices provided to the form must be a valid subset of those
choices, otherwise the form submission will fail with
a ValidationError when the model itself
is validated before saving.

ModelAdmin.get_changelist(request, **kwargs)[source]

Returns the Changelist class to be used for listing. By default,
django.contrib.admin.views.main.ChangeList is used. By inheriting this
class you can change the behavior of the listing.

ModelAdmin.get_changelist_form(request, **kwargs)[source]

Returns a ModelForm class for use in the Formset
on the changelist page. To use a custom form, for example:

from django import forms

class MyForm(forms.ModelForm):
    pass

class MyModelAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    def get_changelist_form(self, request, **kwargs):
        return MyForm

Note

If you define the Meta.model attribute on a
ModelForm, you must also define the
Meta.fields attribute (or the Meta.exclude attribute). However,
ModelAdmin ignores this value, overriding it with the
ModelAdmin.list_editable attribute. The easiest solution is to
omit the Meta.model attribute, since ModelAdmin will provide the
correct model to use.

ModelAdmin.get_changelist_formset(request, **kwargs)[source]

Returns a ModelFormSet class for use on the
changelist page if list_editable is used. To use a
custom formset, for example:

from django.forms import BaseModelFormSet

class MyAdminFormSet(BaseModelFormSet):
    pass

class MyModelAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    def get_changelist_formset(self, request, **kwargs):
        kwargs['formset'] = MyAdminFormSet
        return super().get_changelist_formset(request, **kwargs)
ModelAdmin.lookup_allowed(lookup, value)

The objects in the changelist page can be filtered with lookups from the
URL’s query string. This is how list_filter works, for example. The
lookups are similar to what’s used in QuerySet.filter() (e.g.
user__email=user@example.com). Since the lookups in the query string
can be manipulated by the user, they must be sanitized to prevent
unauthorized data exposure.

The lookup_allowed() method is given a lookup path from the query string
(e.g. 'user__email') and the corresponding value
(e.g. 'user@example.com'), and returns a boolean indicating whether
filtering the changelist’s QuerySet using the parameters is permitted.
If lookup_allowed() returns False, DisallowedModelAdminLookup
(subclass of SuspiciousOperation) is raised.

By default, lookup_allowed() allows access to a model’s local fields,
field paths used in list_filter (but not paths from
get_list_filter()), and lookups required for
limit_choices_to to function
correctly in raw_id_fields.

Override this method to customize the lookups permitted for your
ModelAdmin subclass.

ModelAdmin.has_add_permission(request)

Should return True if adding an object is permitted, False
otherwise.

ModelAdmin.has_change_permission(request, obj=None)

Should return True if editing obj is permitted, False
otherwise. If obj is None, should return True or False to
indicate whether editing of objects of this type is permitted in general
(e.g., False will be interpreted as meaning that the current user is
not permitted to edit any object of this type).

ModelAdmin.has_delete_permission(request, obj=None)

Should return True if deleting obj is permitted, False
otherwise. If obj is None, should return True or False to
indicate whether deleting objects of this type is permitted in general
(e.g., False will be interpreted as meaning that the current user is
not permitted to delete any object of this type).

ModelAdmin.has_module_permission(request)

Should return True if displaying the module on the admin index page and
accessing the module’s index page is permitted, False otherwise.
Uses User.has_module_perms() by default. Overriding
it does not restrict access to the add, change or delete views,
has_add_permission(),
has_change_permission(), and
has_delete_permission() should be used for that.

ModelAdmin.get_queryset(request)

The get_queryset method on a ModelAdmin returns a
QuerySet of all model instances that
can be edited by the admin site. One use case for overriding this method
is to show objects owned by the logged-in user:

class MyModelAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    def get_queryset(self, request):
        qs = super().get_queryset(request)
        if request.user.is_superuser:
            return qs
        return qs.filter(author=request.user)
ModelAdmin.message_user(request, message, level=messages.INFO, extra_tags=”, fail_silently=False)[source]

Sends a message to the user using the django.contrib.messages
backend. See the custom ModelAdmin example.

Keyword arguments allow you to change the message level, add extra CSS
tags, or fail silently if the contrib.messages framework is not
installed. These keyword arguments match those for
django.contrib.messages.add_message(), see that function’s
documentation for more details. One difference is that the level may be
passed as a string label in addition to integer/constant.

ModelAdmin.get_paginator(request, queryset, per_page, orphans=0, allow_empty_first_page=True)[source]

Returns an instance of the paginator to use for this view. By default,
instantiates an instance of paginator.

ModelAdmin.response_add(request, obj, post_url_continue=None)[source]

Determines the HttpResponse for the
add_view() stage.

response_add is called after the admin form is submitted and
just after the object and all the related instances have
been created and saved. You can override it to change the default behavior
after the object has been created.

ModelAdmin.response_change(request, obj)[source]

Determines the HttpResponse for the
change_view() stage.

response_change is called after the admin form is submitted and
just after the object and all the related instances have
been saved. You can override it to change the default
behavior after the object has been changed.

ModelAdmin.response_delete(request, obj_display, obj_id)[source]

Determines the HttpResponse for the
delete_view() stage.

response_delete is called after the object has been
deleted. You can override it to change the default
behavior after the object has been deleted.

obj_display is a string with the name of the deleted
object.

obj_id is the serialized identifier used to retrieve the object to be
deleted.

ModelAdmin.get_changeform_initial_data(request)[source]

A hook for the initial data on admin change forms. By default, fields are
given initial values from GET parameters. For instance,
?name=initial_value will set the name field’s initial value to be
initial_value.

This method should return a dictionary in the form
{'fieldname': 'fieldval'}:

def get_changeform_initial_data(self, request):
    return {'name': 'custom_initial_value'}

Other methods

ModelAdmin.add_view(request, form_url=”, extra_context=None)[source]

Django view for the model instance addition page. See note below.

ModelAdmin.change_view(request, object_id, form_url=”, extra_context=None)[source]

Django view for the model instance editing page. See note below.

ModelAdmin.changelist_view(request, extra_context=None)[source]

Django view for the model instances change list/actions page. See note
below.

ModelAdmin.delete_view(request, object_id, extra_context=None)[source]

Django view for the model instance(s) deletion confirmation page. See note
below.

ModelAdmin.history_view(request, object_id, extra_context=None)[source]

Django view for the page that shows the modification history for a given
model instance.

Unlike the hook-type ModelAdmin methods detailed in the previous section,
these five methods are in reality designed to be invoked as Django views from
the admin application URL dispatching handler to render the pages that deal
with model instances CRUD operations. As a result, completely overriding these
methods will significantly change the behavior of the admin application.

One common reason for overriding these methods is to augment the context data
that is provided to the template that renders the view. In the following
example, the change view is overridden so that the rendered template is
provided some extra mapping data that would not otherwise be available:

class MyModelAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):

    # A template for a very customized change view:
    change_form_template = 'admin/myapp/extras/openstreetmap_change_form.html'

    def get_osm_info(self):
        # ...
        pass

    def change_view(self, request, object_id, form_url='', extra_context=None):
        extra_context = extra_context or {}
        extra_context['osm_data'] = self.get_osm_info()
        return super().change_view(
            request, object_id, form_url, extra_context=extra_context,
        )

These views return TemplateResponse
instances which allow you to easily customize the response data before
rendering. For more details, see the TemplateResponse documentation.

ModelAdmin asset definitions¶

There are times where you would like add a bit of CSS and/or JavaScript to
the add/change views. This can be accomplished by using a Media inner class
on your ModelAdmin:

class ArticleAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    class Media:
        css = {
            "all": ("my_styles.css",)
        }
        js = ("my_code.js",)

The staticfiles app prepends
STATIC_URL (or MEDIA_URL if STATIC_URL is
None) to any asset paths. The same rules apply as regular asset
definitions on forms
.

jQuery

Django admin JavaScript makes use of the jQuery library.

To avoid conflicts with user-supplied scripts or libraries, Django’s jQuery
(version 2.2.3) is namespaced as django.jQuery. If you want to use jQuery
in your own admin JavaScript without including a second copy, you can use the
django.jQuery object on changelist and add/edit views.

The ModelAdmin class requires jQuery by default, so there is no need
to add jQuery to your ModelAdmin’s list of media resources unless you have
a specific need. For example, if you require the jQuery library to be in the
global namespace (for example when using third-party jQuery plugins) or if you
need a newer version of jQuery, you will have to include your own copy.

Django provides both uncompressed and ‘minified’ versions of jQuery, as
jquery.js and jquery.min.js respectively.

ModelAdmin and InlineModelAdmin have a media property
that returns a list of Media objects which store paths to the JavaScript
files for the forms and/or formsets. If DEBUG is True it will
return the uncompressed versions of the various JavaScript files, including
jquery.js; if not, it will return the ‘minified’ versions.

Adding custom validation to the admin¶

Adding custom validation of data in the admin is quite easy. The automatic
admin interface reuses django.forms, and the ModelAdmin class gives
you the ability define your own form:

class ArticleAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    form = MyArticleAdminForm

MyArticleAdminForm can be defined anywhere as long as you import where
needed. Now within your form you can add your own custom validation for
any field:

class MyArticleAdminForm(forms.ModelForm):
    def clean_name(self):
        # do something that validates your data
        return self.cleaned_data["name"]

It is important you use a ModelForm here otherwise things can break. See
the forms documentation on custom validation and, more specifically, the
model form validation notes for more
information.

InlineModelAdmin objects¶

class InlineModelAdmin
class TabularInline[source]
class StackedInline[source]

The admin interface has the ability to edit models on the same page as a
parent model. These are called inlines. Suppose you have these two models:

from django.db import models

class Author(models.Model):
   name = models.CharField(max_length=100)

class Book(models.Model):
   author = models.ForeignKey(Author, on_delete=models.CASCADE)
   title = models.CharField(max_length=100)

You can edit the books authored by an author on the author page. You add
inlines to a model by specifying them in a ModelAdmin.inlines:

from django.contrib import admin

class BookInline(admin.TabularInline):
    model = Book

class AuthorAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    inlines = [
        BookInline,
    ]

Django provides two subclasses of InlineModelAdmin and they are:

The difference between these two is merely the template used to render
them.

InlineModelAdmin options¶

InlineModelAdmin shares many of the same features as ModelAdmin, and
adds some of its own (the shared features are actually defined in the
BaseModelAdmin superclass). The shared features are:

The InlineModelAdmin class adds:

InlineModelAdmin.model

The model which the inline is using. This is required.

InlineModelAdmin.fk_name

The name of the foreign key on the model. In most cases this will be dealt
with automatically, but fk_name must be specified explicitly if there
are more than one foreign key to the same parent model.

InlineModelAdmin.formset

This defaults to BaseInlineFormSet. Using
your own formset can give you many possibilities of customization. Inlines
are built around model formsets.

InlineModelAdmin.form

The value for form defaults to ModelForm. This is what is passed
through to inlineformset_factory() when
creating the formset for this inline.

Warning

When writing custom validation for InlineModelAdmin forms, be cautious
of writing validation that relies on features of the parent model. If the
parent model fails to validate, it may be left in an inconsistent state as
described in the warning in 验证 ModelForm.

InlineModelAdmin.classes

A list or tuple containing extra CSS classes to apply to the fieldset that
is rendered for the inlines. Defaults to None. As with classes
configured in fieldsets, inlines with a collapse
class will be initially collapsed and their header will have a small “show”
link.

InlineModelAdmin.extra

This controls the number of extra forms the formset will display in
addition to the initial forms. See the
formsets documentation for more
information.

For users with JavaScript-enabled browsers, an “Add another” link is
provided to enable any number of additional inlines to be added in addition
to those provided as a result of the extra argument.

The dynamic link will not appear if the number of currently displayed forms
exceeds max_num, or if the user does not have JavaScript enabled.

InlineModelAdmin.get_extra() also allows you to customize the number
of extra forms.

InlineModelAdmin.max_num

This controls the maximum number of forms to show in the inline. This
doesn’t directly correlate to the number of objects, but can if the value
is small enough. See Limiting the number of editable objects for more information.

InlineModelAdmin.get_max_num() also allows you to customize the
maximum number of extra forms.

InlineModelAdmin.min_num

This controls the minimum number of forms to show in the inline.
See modelformset_factory() for more information.

InlineModelAdmin.get_min_num() also allows you to customize the
minimum number of displayed forms.

InlineModelAdmin.raw_id_fields

By default, Django’s admin uses a select-box interface (<select>) for
fields that are ForeignKey. Sometimes you don’t want to incur the
overhead of having to select all the related instances to display in the
drop-down.

raw_id_fields is a list of fields you would like to change into an
Input widget for either a ForeignKey or ManyToManyField:

class BookInline(admin.TabularInline):
    model = Book
    raw_id_fields = ("pages",)
InlineModelAdmin.template

The template used to render the inline on the page.

InlineModelAdmin.verbose_name

An override to the verbose_name found in the model’s inner Meta
class.

InlineModelAdmin.verbose_name_plural

An override to the verbose_name_plural found in the model’s inner
Meta class.

InlineModelAdmin.can_delete

Specifies whether or not inline objects can be deleted in the inline.
Defaults to True.

Specifies whether or not inline objects that can be changed in the
admin have a link to the change form. Defaults to False.

InlineModelAdmin.get_formset(request, obj=None, **kwargs)

Returns a BaseInlineFormSet class for use in
admin add/change views. See the example for
ModelAdmin.get_formsets_with_inlines.

InlineModelAdmin.get_extra(request, obj=None, **kwargs)

Returns the number of extra inline forms to use. By default, returns the
InlineModelAdmin.extra attribute.

Override this method to programmatically determine the number of extra
inline forms. For example, this may be based on the model instance
(passed as the keyword argument obj):

class BinaryTreeAdmin(admin.TabularInline):
    model = BinaryTree

    def get_extra(self, request, obj=None, **kwargs):
        extra = 2
        if obj:
            return extra - obj.binarytree_set.count()
        return extra
InlineModelAdmin.get_max_num(request, obj=None, **kwargs)

Returns the maximum number of extra inline forms to use. By default,
returns the InlineModelAdmin.max_num attribute.

Override this method to programmatically determine the maximum number of
inline forms. For example, this may be based on the model instance
(passed as the keyword argument obj):

class BinaryTreeAdmin(admin.TabularInline):
    model = BinaryTree

    def get_max_num(self, request, obj=None, **kwargs):
        max_num = 10
        if obj and obj.parent:
            return max_num - 5
        return max_num
InlineModelAdmin.get_min_num(request, obj=None, **kwargs)

Returns the minimum number of inline forms to use. By default,
returns the InlineModelAdmin.min_num attribute.

Override this method to programmatically determine the minimum number of
inline forms. For example, this may be based on the model instance
(passed as the keyword argument obj).

Working with a model with two or more foreign keys to the same parent model¶

It is sometimes possible to have more than one foreign key to the same model.
Take this model for instance:

from django.db import models

class Friendship(models.Model):
    to_person = models.ForeignKey(Person, on_delete=models.CASCADE, related_name="friends")
    from_person = models.ForeignKey(Person, on_delete=models.CASCADE, related_name="from_friends")

If you wanted to display an inline on the Person admin add/change pages
you need to explicitly define the foreign key since it is unable to do so
automatically:

from django.contrib import admin
from myapp.models import Friendship

class FriendshipInline(admin.TabularInline):
    model = Friendship
    fk_name = "to_person"

class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    inlines = [
        FriendshipInline,
    ]

Working with many-to-many models¶

By default, admin widgets for many-to-many relations will be displayed
on whichever model contains the actual reference to the
ManyToManyField. Depending on your ModelAdmin
definition, each many-to-many field in your model will be represented by a
standard HTML <select multiple>, a horizontal or vertical filter, or a
raw_id_admin widget. However, it is also possible to replace these
widgets with inlines.

Suppose we have the following models:

from django.db import models

class Person(models.Model):
    name = models.CharField(max_length=128)

class Group(models.Model):
    name = models.CharField(max_length=128)
    members = models.ManyToManyField(Person, related_name='groups')

If you want to display many-to-many relations using an inline, you can do
so by defining an InlineModelAdmin object for the relationship:

from django.contrib import admin

class MembershipInline(admin.TabularInline):
    model = Group.members.through

class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    inlines = [
        MembershipInline,
    ]

class GroupAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    inlines = [
        MembershipInline,
    ]
    exclude = ('members',)

There are two features worth noting in this example.

Firstly – the MembershipInline class references Group.members.through.
The through attribute is a reference to the model that manages the
many-to-many relation. This model is automatically created by Django when you
define a many-to-many field.

Secondly, the GroupAdmin must manually exclude the members field.
Django displays an admin widget for a many-to-many field on the model that
defines the relation (in this case, Group). If you want to use an inline
model to represent the many-to-many relationship, you must tell Django’s admin
to not display this widget – otherwise you will end up with two widgets on
your admin page for managing the relation.

Note that when using this technique the
m2m_changed signals aren’t triggered. This
is because as far as the admin is concerned, through is just a model with
two foreign key fields rather than a many-to-many relation.

In all other respects, the InlineModelAdmin is exactly the same as any
other. You can customize the appearance using any of the normal
ModelAdmin properties.

Working with many-to-many intermediary models¶

When you specify an intermediary model using the through argument to a
ManyToManyField, the admin will not display a
widget by default. This is because each instance of that intermediary model
requires more information than could be displayed in a single widget, and the
layout required for multiple widgets will vary depending on the intermediate
model.

However, we still want to be able to edit that information inline. Fortunately,
this is easy to do with inline admin models. Suppose we have the following
models:

from django.db import models

class Person(models.Model):
    name = models.CharField(max_length=128)

class Group(models.Model):
    name = models.CharField(max_length=128)
    members = models.ManyToManyField(Person, through='Membership')

class Membership(models.Model):
    person = models.ForeignKey(Person, on_delete=models.CASCADE)
    group = models.ForeignKey(Group, on_delete=models.CASCADE)
    date_joined = models.DateField()
    invite_reason = models.CharField(max_length=64)

The first step in displaying this intermediate model in the admin is to
define an inline class for the Membership model:

class MembershipInline(admin.TabularInline):
    model = Membership
    extra = 1

This simple example uses the default InlineModelAdmin values for the
Membership model, and limits the extra add forms to one. This could be
customized using any of the options available to InlineModelAdmin classes.

Now create admin views for the Person and Group models:

class PersonAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    inlines = (MembershipInline,)

class GroupAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    inlines = (MembershipInline,)

Finally, register your Person and Group models with the admin site:

admin.site.register(Person, PersonAdmin)
admin.site.register(Group, GroupAdmin)

Now your admin site is set up to edit Membership objects inline from
either the Person or the Group detail pages.

Using generic relations as an inline¶

It is possible to use an inline with generically related objects. Let’s say
you have the following models:

from django.contrib.contenttypes.fields import GenericForeignKey
from django.db import models

class Image(models.Model):
    image = models.ImageField(upload_to="images")
    content_type = models.ForeignKey(ContentType, on_delete=models.CASCADE)
    object_id = models.PositiveIntegerField()
    content_object = GenericForeignKey("content_type", "object_id")

class Product(models.Model):
    name = models.CharField(max_length=100)

If you want to allow editing and creating an Image instance on the
Product, add/change views you can use
GenericTabularInline
or GenericStackedInline (both
subclasses of GenericInlineModelAdmin)
provided by admin. They implement tabular
and stacked visual layouts for the forms representing the inline objects,
respectively, just like their non-generic counterparts. They behave just like
any other inline. In your admin.py for this example app:

from django.contrib import admin
from django.contrib.contenttypes.admin import GenericTabularInline

from myproject.myapp.models import Image, Product

class ImageInline(GenericTabularInline):
    model = Image

class ProductAdmin(admin.ModelAdmin):
    inlines = [
        ImageInline,
    ]

admin.site.register(Product, ProductAdmin)

See the contenttypes documentation for more
specific information.

Overriding admin templates¶

It is relatively easy to override many of the templates which the admin module
uses to generate the various pages of an admin site. You can even override a
few of these templates for a specific app, or a specific model.

Set up your projects admin template directories¶

The admin template files are located in the contrib/admin/templates/admin
directory.

In order to override one or more of them, first create an admin directory
in your project’s templates directory. This can be any of the directories
you specified in the DIRS option of the
DjangoTemplates backend in the TEMPLATES setting. If you have
customized the 'loaders' option, be sure
'django.template.loaders.filesystem.Loader' appears before
'django.template.loaders.app_directories.Loader' so that your custom
templates will be found by the template loading system before those that are
included with django.contrib.admin.

Within this admin directory, create sub-directories named after your app.
Within these app subdirectories create sub-directories named after your models.
Note, that the admin app will lowercase the model name when looking for the
directory, so make sure you name the directory in all lowercase if you are
going to run your app on a case-sensitive filesystem.

To override an admin template for a specific app, copy and edit the template
from the django/contrib/admin/templates/admin directory, and save it to one
of the directories you just created.

For example, if we wanted to add a tool to the change list view for all the
models in an app named my_app, we would copy
contrib/admin/templates/admin/change_list.html to the
templates/admin/my_app/ directory of our project, and make any necessary
changes.

If we wanted to add a tool to the change list view for only a specific model
named ‘Page’, we would copy that same file to the
templates/admin/my_app/page directory of our project.

Overriding vs. replacing an admin template¶

Because of the modular design of the admin templates, it is usually neither
necessary nor advisable to replace an entire template. It is almost always
better to override only the section of the template which you need to change.

To continue the example above, we want to add a new link next to the
History tool for the Page model. After looking at change_form.html
we determine that we only need to override the object-tools-items block.
Therefore here is our new change_form.html :

{% extends "admin/change_form.html" %}
{% load i18n admin_urls %}
{% block object-tools-items %}
    <li>
        <a href="{% url opts|admin_urlname:'history' original.pk|admin_urlquote %}" class="historylink">{% trans "History" %}</a>
    </li>
    <li>
        <a href="mylink/" class="historylink">My Link</a>
    </li>
    {% if has_absolute_url %}
        <li>
            <a href="{% url 'admin:view_on_site' content_type_id original.pk %}" class="viewsitelink">{% trans "View on site" %}</a>
        </li>
    {% endif %}
{% endblock %}

And that’s it! If we placed this file in the templates/admin/my_app
directory, our link would appear on the change form for all models within
my_app.

Templates which may be overridden per app or model¶

Not every template in contrib/admin/templates/admin may be overridden per
app or per model. The following can:

  • app_index.html
  • change_form.html
  • change_list.html
  • delete_confirmation.html
  • object_history.html
  • popup_response.html
Changed in Django 1.11:

The ability to override the popup_response.html template was added.

For those templates that cannot be overridden in this way, you may still
override them for your entire project. Just place the new version in your
templates/admin directory. This is particularly useful to create custom 404
and 500 pages.

Note

Some of the admin templates, such as change_list_results.html are used
to render custom inclusion tags. These may be overridden, but in such cases
you are probably better off creating your own version of the tag in
question and giving it a different name. That way you can use it
selectively.

Root and login templates¶

If you wish to change the index, login or logout templates, you are better off
creating your own AdminSite instance (see below), and changing the
AdminSite.index_template , AdminSite.login_template or
AdminSite.logout_template properties.

AdminSite objects¶

class AdminSite(name=’admin’)[source]

A Django administrative site is represented by an instance of
django.contrib.admin.sites.AdminSite; by default, an instance of
this class is created as django.contrib.admin.site and you can
register your models and ModelAdmin instances with it.

When constructing an instance of an AdminSite, you can provide
a unique instance name using the name argument to the constructor. This
instance name is used to identify the instance, especially when
reversing admin URLs. If no instance name is
provided, a default instance name of admin will be used.
See Customizing the AdminSite class for an example of customizing the
AdminSite class.

AdminSite attributes¶

Templates can override or extend base admin templates as described in
Overriding admin templates.

AdminSite.site_header

The text to put at the top of each admin page, as an <h1> (a string).
By default, this is “Django administration”.

AdminSite.site_title

The text to put at the end of each admin page’s <title> (a string). By
default, this is “Django site admin”.

AdminSite.site_url

The URL for the “View site” link at the top of each admin page. By default,
site_url is /. Set it to None to remove the link.

For sites running on a subpath, the each_context() method checks if
the current request has request.META['SCRIPT_NAME'] set and uses that
value if site_url isn’t set to something other than /.

AdminSite.index_title

The text to put at the top of the admin index page (a string). By default,
this is “Site administration”.

AdminSite.index_template

Path to a custom template that will be used by the admin site main index
view.

AdminSite.app_index_template

Path to a custom template that will be used by the admin site app index view.

AdminSite.empty_value_display

The string to use for displaying empty values in the admin site’s change
list. Defaults to a dash. The value can also be overridden on a per
ModelAdmin basis and on a custom field within a ModelAdmin by
setting an empty_value_display attribute on the field. See
ModelAdmin.empty_value_display for examples.

AdminSite.login_template

Path to a custom template that will be used by the admin site login view.

AdminSite.login_form

Subclass of AuthenticationForm that
will be used by the admin site login view.

AdminSite.logout_template

Path to a custom template that will be used by the admin site logout view.

AdminSite.password_change_template

Path to a custom template that will be used by the admin site password
change view.

AdminSite.password_change_done_template

Path to a custom template that will be used by the admin site password
change done view.

AdminSite methods¶

AdminSite.each_context(request)[source]

Returns a dictionary of variables to put in the template context for
every page in the admin site.

Includes the following variables and values by default:

  • site_header: AdminSite.site_header

  • site_title: AdminSite.site_title

  • site_url: AdminSite.site_url

  • has_permission: AdminSite.has_permission()

  • available_apps: a list of applications from the application registry available for the current user. Each entry in the
    list is a dict representing an application with the following keys:

    • app_label: the application label
    • app_url: the URL of the application index in the admin
    • has_module_perms: a boolean indicating if displaying and accessing of
      the module’s index page is permitted for the current user
    • models: a list of the models available in the application

    Each model is a dict with the following keys:

    • object_name: class name of the model
    • name: plural name of the model
    • perms: a dict tracking add, change, and delete permissions
    • admin_url: admin changelist URL for the model
    • add_url: admin URL to add a new model instance
AdminSite.has_permission(request)[source]

Returns True if the user for the given HttpRequest has permission
to view at least one page in the admin site. Defaults to requiring both
User.is_active and
User.is_staff to be
True.

AdminSite.register(model_or_iterable, admin_class=None, **options)[source]

Registers the given model class (or iterable of classes) with the given
admin_class. admin_class defaults to
ModelAdmin (the default admin options). If
keyword arguments are given — e.g. list_display — they’ll be applied
as options to the admin class.

Raises ImproperlyConfigured if a model is
abstract. and django.contrib.admin.sites.AlreadyRegistered if a model
is already registered.

Hooking AdminSite instances into your URLconf¶

The last step in setting up the Django admin is to hook your AdminSite
instance into your URLconf. Do this by pointing a given URL at the
AdminSite.urls method. It is not necessary to use
include().

In this example, we register the default AdminSite instance
django.contrib.admin.site at the URL /admin/

# urls.py
from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path

urlpatterns = [
    path('admin/', admin.site.urls),
]

Customizing the AdminSite class¶

If you’d like to set up your own admin site with custom behavior, you’re free
to subclass AdminSite and override or add anything you like. Then, simply
create an instance of your AdminSite subclass (the same way you’d
instantiate any other Python class) and register your models and
ModelAdmin subclasses with it instead of with the default site. Finally,
update myproject/urls.py to reference your AdminSite subclass.

myapp/admin.py
from django.contrib.admin import AdminSite

from .models import MyModel

class MyAdminSite(AdminSite):
    site_header = 'Monty Python administration'

admin_site = MyAdminSite(name='myadmin')
admin_site.register(MyModel)
myproject/urls.py
from django.urls import path

from myapp.admin import admin_site

urlpatterns = [
    path('myadmin/', admin_site.urls),
]

Note that you may not want autodiscovery of admin modules when using your
own AdminSite instance since you will likely be importing all the per-app
admin modules in your myproject.admin module. This means you need to
put 'django.contrib.admin.apps.SimpleAdminConfig' instead of
'django.contrib.admin' in your INSTALLED_APPS setting.

Multiple admin sites in the same URLconf¶

It’s easy to create multiple instances of the admin site on the same
Django-powered website. Just create multiple instances of AdminSite and
root each one at a different URL.

In this example, the URLs /basic-admin/ and /advanced-admin/ feature
separate versions of the admin site — using the AdminSite instances
myproject.admin.basic_site and myproject.admin.advanced_site,
respectively:

# urls.py
from django.urls import path
from myproject.admin import advanced_site, basic_site

urlpatterns = [
    path('basic-admin/', basic_site.urls),
    path('advanced-admin/', advanced_site.urls),
]

AdminSite instances take a single argument to their constructor, their
name, which can be anything you like. This argument becomes the prefix to the
URL names for the purposes of reversing them. This
is only necessary if you are using more than one AdminSite.

Adding views to admin sites¶

Just like ModelAdmin, AdminSite provides a
get_urls() method
that can be overridden to define additional views for the site. To add
a new view to your admin site, extend the base
get_urls() method to include
a pattern for your new view.

Note

Any view you render that uses the admin templates, or extends the base
admin template, should set request.current_app before rendering the
template. It should be set to either self.name if your view is on an
AdminSite or self.admin_site.name if your view is on a
ModelAdmin.

Adding a password reset feature¶

You can add a password reset feature to the admin site by adding a few lines to
your URLconf. Specifically, add these four patterns:

from django.contrib.auth import views as auth_views

path(
    'admin/password_reset/',
    auth_views.PasswordResetView.as_view(),
    name='admin_password_reset',
),
path(
    'admin/password_reset/done/',
    auth_views.PasswordResetDoneView.as_view(),
    name='password_reset_done',
),
path(
    'reset/<uidb64>/<token>/',
    auth_views.PasswordResetConfirmView.as_view(),
    name='password_reset_confirm',
),
path(
    'reset/done/',
    auth_views.PasswordResetCompleteView.as_view(),
    name='password_reset_complete',
),

(This assumes you’ve added the admin at admin/ and requires that you put
the URLs starting with ^admin/ before the line that includes the admin app
itself).

The presence of the admin_password_reset named URL will cause a “forgotten
your password?” link to appear on the default admin log-in page under the
password box.

LogEntry objects¶

class models.LogEntry

The LogEntry class tracks additions, changes, and deletions of objects
done through the admin interface.

LogEntry attributes¶

LogEntry.action_time

The date and time of the action.

LogEntry.user

The user (an AUTH_USER_MODEL instance) who performed the
action.

LogEntry.content_type

The ContentType of the
modified object.

LogEntry.object_id

The textual representation of the modified object’s primary key.

LogEntry.object_repr

The object`s repr() after the modification.

LogEntry.action_flag

The type of action logged: ADDITION, CHANGE, DELETION.

For example, to get a list of all additions done through the admin:

from django.contrib.admin.models import ADDITION, LogEntry

LogEntry.objects.filter(action_flag=ADDITION)
LogEntry.change_message

The detailed description of the modification. In the case of an edit, for
example, the message contains a list of the edited fields. The Django admin
site formats this content as a JSON structure, so that
get_change_message() can recompose a message translated in the current
user language. Custom code might set this as a plain string though. You are
advised to use the get_change_message() method to retrieve this value
instead of accessing it directly.

LogEntry methods¶

LogEntry.get_edited_object()

A shortcut that returns the referenced object.

LogEntry.get_change_message()

Formats and translates change_message into the current user
language. Messages created before Django 1.10 will always be displayed in
the language in which they were logged.

Reversing admin URLs¶

When an AdminSite is deployed, the views provided by that site are
accessible using Django’s URL reversing system.

The AdminSite provides the following named URL patterns:

Page URL name Parameters
Index index  
Login login  
Logout logout  
Password change password_change  
Password change done password_change_done  
i18n JavaScript jsi18n  
Application index page app_list app_label
Redirect to object’s page view_on_site content_type_id, object_id

Each ModelAdmin instance provides an additional set of named URLs:

Page URL name Parameters
Changelist {{ app_label }}_{{ model_name }}_changelist  
Add {{ app_label }}_{{ model_name }}_add  
History {{ app_label }}_{{ model_name }}_history object_id
Delete {{ app_label }}_{{ model_name }}_delete object_id
Change {{ app_label }}_{{ model_name }}_change object_id

The UserAdmin provides a named URL:

Page URL name Parameters
Password change auth_user_password_change user_id

These named URLs are registered with the application namespace admin, and
with an instance namespace corresponding to the name of the Site instance.

So – if you wanted to get a reference to the Change view for a particular
Choice object (from the polls application) in the default admin, you would
call:

>>> from django.urls import reverse
>>> c = Choice.objects.get(...)
>>> change_url = reverse('admin:polls_choice_change', args=(c.id,))

This will find the first registered instance of the admin application
(whatever the instance name), and resolve to the view for changing
poll.Choice instances in that instance.

If you want to find a URL in a specific admin instance, provide the name of
that instance as a current_app hint to the reverse call. For example,
if you specifically wanted the admin view from the admin instance named
custom, you would need to call:

>>> change_url = reverse('admin:polls_choice_change', args=(c.id,), current_app='custom')

For more details, see the documentation on reversing namespaced URLs.

To allow easier reversing of the admin urls in templates, Django provides an
admin_urlname filter which takes an action as argument:

{% load admin_urls %}
<a href="{% url opts|admin_urlname:'add' %}">Add user</a>
<a href="{% url opts|admin_urlname:'delete' user.pk %}">Delete this user</a>

The action in the examples above match the last part of the URL names for
ModelAdmin instances described above. The opts variable can be any
object which has an app_label and model_name attributes and is usually
supplied by the admin views for the current model.

The staff_member_required decorator¶

staff_member_required(redirect_field_name=’next’, login_url=’admin:login’)[source]

This decorator is used on the admin views that require authorization. A
view decorated with this function will having the following behavior:

  • If the user is logged in, is a staff member (User.is_staff=True), and
    is active (User.is_active=True), execute the view normally.
  • Otherwise, the request will be redirected to the URL specified by the
    login_url parameter, with the originally requested path in a query
    string variable specified by redirect_field_name. For example:
    /admin/login/?next=/admin/polls/question/3/.

Example usage:

from django.contrib.admin.views.decorators import staff_member_required

@staff_member_required
def my_view(request):
    ...