Django2.0手册:Model field reference

This document contains all the API references of Field including the
field options and field types Django offers.

See also

If the built-in fields don’t do the trick, you can try django-localflavor (documentation), which contains assorted
pieces of code that are useful for particular countries and cultures.

Also, you can easily write your own custom model fields.


Technically, these models are defined in django.db.models.fields, but
for convenience they’re imported into django.db.models; the standard
convention is to use from django.db import models and refer to fields as

Field options¶

The following arguments are available to all field types. All are optional.



If True, Django will store empty values as NULL in the database. Default
is False.

Avoid using null on string-based fields such as
CharField and TextField. If a string-based field has
null=True, that means it has two possible values for “no data”: NULL,
and the empty string. In most cases, it’s redundant to have two possible values
for “no data;” the Django convention is to use the empty string, not
NULL. One exception is when a CharField has both unique=True
and blank=True set. In this situation, null=True is required to avoid
unique constraint violations when saving multiple objects with blank values.

For both string-based and non-string-based fields, you will also need to
set blank=True if you wish to permit empty values in forms, as the
null parameter only affects database storage
(see blank).


When using the Oracle database backend, the value NULL will be stored to
denote the empty string regardless of this attribute.

If you want to accept null values with BooleanField,
use NullBooleanField instead.



If True, the field is allowed to be blank. Default is False.

Note that this is different than null. null is
purely database-related, whereas blank is validation-related. If
a field has blank=True, form validation will allow entry of an empty value.
If a field has blank=False, the field will be required.



An iterable (e.g., a list or tuple) consisting itself of iterables of exactly
two items (e.g. [(A, B), (A, B) ...]) to use as choices for this field. If
this is given, the default form widget will be a select box with these choices
instead of the standard text field.

The first element in each tuple is the actual value to be set on the model,
and the second element is the human-readable name. For example:

    ('FR', 'Freshman'),
    ('SO', 'Sophomore'),
    ('JR', 'Junior'),
    ('SR', 'Senior'),

Generally, it’s best to define choices inside a model class, and to
define a suitably-named constant for each value:

from django.db import models

class Student(models.Model):
    JUNIOR = 'JR'
    SENIOR = 'SR'
        (FRESHMAN, 'Freshman'),
        (SOPHOMORE, 'Sophomore'),
        (JUNIOR, 'Junior'),
        (SENIOR, 'Senior'),
    year_in_school = models.CharField(

    def is_upperclass(self):
        return self.year_in_school in (self.JUNIOR, self.SENIOR)

Though you can define a choices list outside of a model class and then
refer to it, defining the choices and names for each choice inside the
model class keeps all of that information with the class that uses it,
and makes the choices easy to reference (e.g, Student.SOPHOMORE
will work anywhere that the Student model has been imported).

You can also collect your available choices into named groups that can
be used for organizational purposes:

    ('Audio', (
            ('vinyl', 'Vinyl'),
            ('cd', 'CD'),
    ('Video', (
            ('vhs', 'VHS Tape'),
            ('dvd', 'DVD'),
    ('unknown', 'Unknown'),

The first element in each tuple is the name to apply to the group. The
second element is an iterable of 2-tuples, with each 2-tuple containing
a value and a human-readable name for an option. Grouped options may be
combined with ungrouped options within a single list (such as the
unknown option in this example).

For each model field that has choices set, Django will add a
method to retrieve the human-readable name for the field’s current value. See
get_FOO_display() in the database API

Note that choices can be any iterable object — not necessarily a list or tuple.
This lets you construct choices dynamically. But if you find yourself hacking
choices to be dynamic, you’re probably better off using a proper
database table with a ForeignKey. choices is meant for
static data that doesn’t change much, if ever.

Unless blank=False is set on the field along with a
default then a label containing "---------" will be rendered
with the select box. To override this behavior, add a tuple to choices
containing None; e.g. (None, 'Your String For Display').
Alternatively, you can use an empty string instead of None where this makes
sense – such as on a CharField.



The name of the database column to use for this field. If this isn’t given,
Django will use the field’s name.

If your database column name is an SQL reserved word, or contains
characters that aren’t allowed in Python variable names — notably, the
hyphen — that’s OK. Django quotes column and table names behind the



If True, a database index will be created for this field.



The name of the database tablespace to use for
this field’s index, if this field is indexed. The default is the project’s
DEFAULT_INDEX_TABLESPACE setting, if set, or the
db_tablespace of the model, if any. If the backend doesn’t
support tablespaces for indexes, this option is ignored.



The default value for the field. This can be a value or a callable object. If
callable it will be called every time a new object is created.

The default can’t be a mutable object (model instance, list, set, etc.),
as a reference to the same instance of that object would be used as the default
value in all new model instances. Instead, wrap the desired default in a
callable. For example, if you want to specify a default dict for
JSONField, use a function:

def contact_default():
    return {"email": ""}

contact_info = JSONField("ContactInfo", default=contact_default)

lambdas can’t be used for field options like default because they
can’t be serialized by migrations. See that
documentation for other caveats.

For fields like ForeignKey that map to model instances, defaults
should be the value of the field they reference (pk unless
to_field is set) instead of model instances.

The default value is used when new model instances are created and a value
isn’t provided for the field. When the field is a primary key, the default is
also used when the field is set to None.



If False, the field will not be displayed in the admin or any other
ModelForm. They are also skipped during model
. Default is True.



The error_messages argument lets you override the default messages that the
field will raise. Pass in a dictionary with keys matching the error messages you
want to override.

Error message keys include null, blank, invalid, invalid_choice,
unique, and unique_for_date. Additional error message keys are
specified for each field in the Field types section below.

These error messages often don’t propagate to forms. See
有关模型的 error_messages 的注意事项.



Extra “help” text to be displayed with the form widget. It’s useful for
documentation even if your field isn’t used on a form.

Note that this value is not HTML-escaped in automatically-generated
forms. This lets you include HTML in help_text if you so
desire. For example:

help_text="Please use the following format: <em>YYYY-MM-DD</em>."

Alternatively you can use plain text and
django.utils.html.escape() to escape any HTML special characters. Ensure
that you escape any help text that may come from untrusted users to avoid a
cross-site scripting attack.



If True, this field is the primary key for the model.

If you don’t specify primary_key=True for any field in your model, Django
will automatically add an AutoField to hold the primary key, so you
don’t need to set primary_key=True on any of your fields unless you want to
override the default primary-key behavior. For more, see
Automatic primary key fields.

primary_key=True implies null=False and
unique=True. Only one primary key is allowed on an

The primary key field is read-only. If you change the value of the primary
key on an existing object and then save it, a new object will be created
alongside the old one.



If True, this field must be unique throughout the table.

This is enforced at the database level and by model validation. If
you try to save a model with a duplicate value in a unique
field, a django.db.IntegrityError will be raised by the model’s
save() method.

This option is valid on all field types except ManyToManyField and

Note that when unique is True, you don’t need to specify
db_index, because unique implies the creation of an index.

Changed in Django 1.11:

In older versions, unique=True can’t be used on FileField.



Set this to the name of a DateField or DateTimeField to
require that this field be unique for the value of the date field.

For example, if you have a field title that has
unique_for_date="pub_date", then Django wouldn’t allow the entry of two
records with the same title and pub_date.

Note that if you set this to point to a DateTimeField, only the date
portion of the field will be considered. Besides, when USE_TZ is
True, the check will be performed in the current time zone at the time the object gets saved.

This is enforced by Model.validate_unique() during model validation
but not at the database level. If any unique_for_date constraint
involves fields that are not part of a ModelForm (for
example, if one of the fields is listed in exclude or has
editable=False), Model.validate_unique() will
skip validation for that particular constraint.



Like unique_for_date, but requires the field to be unique with
respect to the month.



Like unique_for_date and unique_for_month.



A human-readable name for the field. If the verbose name isn’t given, Django
will automatically create it using the field’s attribute name, converting
underscores to spaces. See Verbose field names.



A list of validators to run for this field. See the validators
for more information.

Registering and fetching lookups

Field implements the lookup registration API.
The API can be used to customize which lookups are available for a field class, and
how lookups are fetched from a field.

Field types¶


class AutoField(**options)[source]

An IntegerField that automatically increments
according to available IDs. You usually won’t need to use this directly; a
primary key field will automatically be added to your model if you don’t specify
otherwise. See Automatic primary key fields.


class BigAutoField(**options)[source]

A 64-bit integer, much like an AutoField except that it is
guaranteed to fit numbers from 1 to 9223372036854775807.


class BigIntegerField(**options)[source]

A 64-bit integer, much like an IntegerField except that it is
guaranteed to fit numbers from -9223372036854775808 to
9223372036854775807. The default form widget for this field is a


class BinaryField(**options)[source]

A field to store raw binary data. It only supports bytes assignment. Be
aware that this field has limited functionality. For example, it is not possible
to filter a queryset on a BinaryField value. It is also not possible to
include a BinaryField in a ModelForm.

Abusing BinaryField

Although you might think about storing files in the database, consider that
it is bad design in 99% of the cases. This field is not a replacement for
proper static files handling.


class BooleanField(**options)[source]

A true/false field.

The default form widget for this field is a

If you need to accept null values then use
NullBooleanField instead.

The default value of BooleanField is None when Field.default
isn’t defined.


class CharField(max_length=None, **options)[source]

A string field, for small- to large-sized strings.

For large amounts of text, use TextField.

The default form widget for this field is a TextInput.

CharField has one extra required argument:


The maximum length (in characters) of the field. The max_length is enforced
at the database level and in Django’s validation.


If you are writing an application that must be portable to multiple
database backends, you should be aware that there are restrictions on
max_length for some backends. Refer to the database backend
for details.


class DateField(auto_now=False, auto_now_add=False, **options)[source]

A date, represented in Python by a instance. Has a few extra,
optional arguments:


Automatically set the field to now every time the object is saved. Useful
for “last-modified” timestamps. Note that the current date is always
used; it’s not just a default value that you can override.

The field is only automatically updated when calling The field isn’t updated when making updates
to other fields in other ways such as QuerySet.update(), though you can specify a custom
value for the field in an update like that.


Automatically set the field to now when the object is first created. Useful
for creation of timestamps. Note that the current date is always used;
it’s not just a default value that you can override. So even if you
set a value for this field when creating the object, it will be ignored.
If you want to be able to modify this field, set the following instead of

The default form widget for this field is a
TextInput. The admin adds a JavaScript calendar,
and a shortcut for “Today”. Includes an additional invalid_date error
message key.

The options auto_now_add, auto_now, and default are mutually exclusive.
Any combination of these options will result in an error.


As currently implemented, setting auto_now or auto_now_add to
True will cause the field to have editable=False and blank=True


The auto_now and auto_now_add options will always use the date in
the default timezone at the moment of
creation or update. If you need something different, you may want to
consider simply using your own callable default or overriding save()
instead of using auto_now or auto_now_add; or using a
DateTimeField instead of a DateField and deciding how to handle the
conversion from datetime to date at display time.


class DateTimeField(auto_now=False, auto_now_add=False, **options)[source]

A date and time, represented in Python by a datetime.datetime instance.
Takes the same extra arguments as DateField.

The default form widget for this field is a single
TextInput. The admin uses two separate
TextInput widgets with JavaScript shortcuts.


class DecimalField(max_digits=None, decimal_places=None, **options)[source]

A fixed-precision decimal number, represented in Python by a
Decimal instance. Has two required arguments:


The maximum number of digits allowed in the number. Note that this number
must be greater than or equal to decimal_places.


The number of decimal places to store with the number.

For example, to store numbers up to 999 with a resolution of 2 decimal
places, you’d use:

models.DecimalField(..., max_digits=5, decimal_places=2)

And to store numbers up to approximately one billion with a resolution of 10
decimal places:

models.DecimalField(..., max_digits=19, decimal_places=10)

The default form widget for this field is a NumberInput
when localize is False or
TextInput otherwise.


For more information about the differences between the
FloatField and DecimalField classes, please
see FloatField vs. DecimalField.


class DurationField(**options)[source]

A field for storing periods of time – modeled in Python by
timedelta. When used on PostgreSQL, the data type
used is an interval and on Oracle the data type is INTERVAL DAY(9) TO
. Otherwise a bigint of microseconds is used.


Arithmetic with DurationField works in most cases. However on all
databases other than PostgreSQL, comparing the value of a DurationField
to arithmetic on DateTimeField instances will not work as expected.


class EmailField(max_length=254, **options)[source]

A CharField that checks that the value is a valid email address. It
uses EmailValidator to validate the input.


class FileField(upload_to=None, max_length=100, **options)[source]

A file-upload field.


The primary_key argument isn’t supported and will raise a an error if

Has two optional arguments:


This attribute provides a way of setting the upload directory and file name,
and can be set in two ways. In both cases, the value is passed to the method.

If you specify a string value, it may contain strftime()
formatting, which will be replaced by the date/time of the file upload (so
that uploaded files don’t fill up the given directory). For example:

class MyModel(models.Model):
    # file will be uploaded to MEDIA_ROOT/uploads
    upload = models.FileField(upload_to='uploads/')
    # or...
    # file will be saved to MEDIA_ROOT/uploads/2015/01/30
    upload = models.FileField(upload_to='uploads/%Y/%m/%d/')

If you are using the default
FileSystemStorage, the string value
will be appended to your MEDIA_ROOT path to form the location on
the local filesystem where uploaded files will be stored. If you are using
a different storage, check that storage’s documentation to see how it
handles upload_to.

upload_to may also be a callable, such as a function. This will be
called to obtain the upload path, including the filename. This callable must
accept two arguments and return a Unix-style path (with forward slashes)
to be passed along to the storage system. The two arguments are:

Argument Description

An instance of the model where the
FileField is defined. More specifically,
this is the particular instance where the
current file is being attached.

In most cases, this object will not have been
saved to the database yet, so if it uses the
default AutoField, it might not yet have a
value for its primary key field

filename The filename that was originally given to the
file. This may or may not be taken into account
when determining the final destination path.

For example:

def user_directory_path(instance, filename):
    # file will be uploaded to MEDIA_ROOT/user_<id>/<filename>
    return 'user_{0}/{1}'.format(, filename)

class MyModel(models.Model):
    upload = models.FileField(upload_to=user_directory_path)

A storage object, which handles the storage and retrieval of your
files. See Managing files for details on how to provide this object.

The default form widget for this field is a

Using a FileField or an ImageField (see below) in a model
takes a few steps:

  1. In your settings file, you’ll need to define MEDIA_ROOT as the
    full path to a directory where you’d like Django to store uploaded files.
    (For performance, these files are not stored in the database.) Define
    MEDIA_URL as the base public URL of that directory. Make sure
    that this directory is writable by the Web server’s user account.
  2. Add the FileField or ImageField to your model, defining
    the upload_to option to specify a subdirectory of
    MEDIA_ROOT to use for uploaded files.
  3. All that will be stored in your database is a path to the file
    (relative to MEDIA_ROOT). You’ll most likely want to use the
    convenience url attribute
    provided by Django. For example, if your ImageField is called
    mug_shot, you can get the absolute path to your image in a template with
    {{ object.mug_shot.url }}.

For example, say your MEDIA_ROOT is set to '/home/media', and
upload_to is set to 'photos/%Y/%m/%d'. The '%Y/%m/%d'
part of upload_to is strftime() formatting;
'%Y' is the four-digit year, '%m' is the two-digit month and '%d' is
the two-digit day. If you upload a file on Jan. 15, 2007, it will be saved in
the directory /home/media/photos/2007/01/15.

If you wanted to retrieve the uploaded file’s on-disk filename, or the file’s
size, you could use the name and
size attributes respectively; for more
information on the available attributes and methods, see the
File class reference and the Managing files
topic guide.


The file is saved as part of saving the model in the database, so the actual
file name used on disk cannot be relied on until after the model has been

The uploaded file’s relative URL can be obtained using the
url attribute. Internally,
this calls the url() method of the
underlying Storage class.

Note that whenever you deal with uploaded files, you should pay close attention
to where you’re uploading them and what type of files they are, to avoid
security holes. Validate all uploaded files so that you’re sure the files are
what you think they are. For example, if you blindly let somebody upload files,
without validation, to a directory that’s within your Web server’s document
root, then somebody could upload a CGI or PHP script and execute that script by
visiting its URL on your site. Don’t allow that.

Also note that even an uploaded HTML file, since it can be executed by the
browser (though not by the server), can pose security threats that are
equivalent to XSS or CSRF attacks.

FileField instances are created in your database as varchar
columns with a default max length of 100 characters. As with other fields, you
can change the maximum length using the max_length argument.

FileField and FieldFile

class FieldFile[source]

When you access a FileField on a model, you are
given an instance of FieldFile as a proxy for accessing the underlying

The API of FieldFile mirrors that of File,
with one key difference: The object wrapped by the class is not necessarily a
wrapper around Python’s built-in file object.
Instead, it is a wrapper around
the result of the
method, which may be a File object, or it may be a
custom storage’s implementation of the File API.

In addition to the API inherited from File such as
read() and write(), FieldFile includes several methods that
can be used to interact with the underlying file:


Two methods of this class, save() and
delete(), default to saving the model object of the
associated FieldFile in the database.

The name of the file including the relative path from the root of the
Storage of the associated


The result of the underlying Storage.size() method.


A read-only property to access the file’s relative URL by calling the
url() method of the underlying
Storage class.’rb’)[source]

Opens or reopens the file associated with this instance in the specified
mode. Unlike the standard Python open() method, it doesn’t return a
file descriptor.

Since the underlying file is opened implicitly when accessing it, it may be
unnecessary to call this method except to reset the pointer to the underlying
file or to change the mode.


Behaves like the standard Python file.close() method and closes the file
associated with this instance., content, save=True)[source]

This method takes a filename and file contents and passes them to the storage
class for the field, then associates the stored file with the model field.
If you want to manually associate file data with
FileField instances on your model, the save()
method is used to persist that file data.

Takes two required arguments: name which is the name of the file, and
content which is an object containing the file’s contents. The
optional save argument controls whether or not the model instance is
saved after the file associated with this field has been altered. Defaults to

Note that the content argument should be an instance of
django.core.files.File, not Python’s built-in file object.
You can construct a File from an existing
Python file object like this:

from django.core.files import File
# Open an existing file using Python's built-in open()
f = open('/path/to/')
myfile = File(f)

Or you can construct one from a Python string like this:

from django.core.files.base import ContentFile
myfile = ContentFile("hello world")

For more information, see Managing files.


Deletes the file associated with this instance and clears all attributes on
the field. Note: This method will close the file if it happens to be open when
delete() is called.

The optional save argument controls whether or not the model instance is
saved after the file associated with this field has been deleted. Defaults to

Note that when a model is deleted, related files are not deleted. If you need
to cleanup orphaned files, you’ll need to handle it yourself (for instance,
with a custom management command that can be run manually or scheduled to run
periodically via e.g. cron).


class FilePathField(path=None, match=None, recursive=False, max_length=100, **options)[source]

A CharField whose choices are limited to the filenames in a certain
directory on the filesystem. Has three special arguments, of which the first is


Required. The absolute filesystem path to a directory from which this
FilePathField should get its choices. Example: "/home/images".


Optional. A regular expression, as a string, that FilePathField
will use to filter filenames. Note that the regex will be applied to the
base filename, not the full path. Example: "foo.*\.txt$", which will
match a file called foo23.txt but not bar.txt or foo23.png.


Optional. Either True or False. Default is False. Specifies
whether all subdirectories of path should be included


Optional. Either True or False. Default is True. Specifies
whether files in the specified location should be included. Either this or
allow_folders must be True.


Optional. Either True or False. Default is False. Specifies
whether folders in the specified location should be included. Either this
or allow_files must be True.

Of course, these arguments can be used together.

The one potential gotcha is that match applies to the
base filename, not the full path. So, this example:

FilePathField(path="/home/images", match="foo.*", recursive=True)

…will match /home/images/foo.png but not /home/images/foo/bar.png
because the match applies to the base filename
(foo.png and bar.png).

FilePathField instances are created in your database as varchar
columns with a default max length of 100 characters. As with other fields, you
can change the maximum length using the max_length argument.


class FloatField(**options)[source]

A floating-point number represented in Python by a float instance.

The default form widget for this field is a NumberInput
when localize is False or
TextInput otherwise.

FloatField vs. DecimalField

The FloatField class is sometimes mixed up with the
DecimalField class. Although they both represent real numbers, they
represent those numbers differently. FloatField uses Python’s float
type internally, while DecimalField uses Python’s Decimal type. For
information on the difference between the two, see Python’s documentation
for the decimal module.


class ImageField(upload_to=None, height_field=None, width_field=None, max_length=100, **options)[source]

Inherits all attributes and methods from FileField, but also
validates that the uploaded object is a valid image.

In addition to the special attributes that are available for FileField,
an ImageField also has height and width attributes.

To facilitate querying on those attributes, ImageField has two extra
optional arguments:


Name of a model field which will be auto-populated with the height of the
image each time the model instance is saved.


Name of a model field which will be auto-populated with the width of the
image each time the model instance is saved.

Requires the Pillow library.

ImageField instances are created in your database as varchar
columns with a default max length of 100 characters. As with other fields, you
can change the maximum length using the max_length argument.

The default form widget for this field is a


class IntegerField(**options)[source]

An integer. Values from -2147483648 to 2147483647 are safe in all
databases supported by Django. The default form widget for this field is a
NumberInput when localize
is False or TextInput otherwise.


class GenericIPAddressField(protocol=’both’, unpack_ipv4=False, **options)[source]

An IPv4 or IPv6 address, in string format (e.g. or
2a02:42fe::4). The default form widget for this field is a

The IPv6 address normalization follows RFC 4291#section-2.2 section 2.2,
including using the IPv4 format suggested in paragraph 3 of that section, like
::ffff: For example, 2001:0::0:01 would be normalized to
2001::1, and ::ffff:0a0a:0a0a to ::ffff: All characters
are converted to lowercase.


Limits valid inputs to the specified protocol.
Accepted values are 'both' (default), 'IPv4'
or 'IPv6'. Matching is case insensitive.


Unpacks IPv4 mapped addresses like ::ffff:
If this option is enabled that address would be unpacked to Default is disabled. Can only be used
when protocol is set to 'both'.

If you allow for blank values, you have to allow for null values since blank
values are stored as null.


class NullBooleanField(**options)[source]

Like a BooleanField, but allows NULL as one of the options. Use
this instead of a BooleanField with null=True. The default form
widget for this field is a NullBooleanSelect.


class PositiveIntegerField(**options)[source]

Like an IntegerField, but must be either positive or zero (0).
Values from 0 to 2147483647 are safe in all databases supported by
Django. The value 0 is accepted for backward compatibility reasons.


class PositiveSmallIntegerField(**options)[source]

Like a PositiveIntegerField, but only allows values under a certain
(database-dependent) point. Values from 0 to 32767 are safe in all
databases supported by Django.


class SlugField(max_length=50, **options)[source]

Slug is a newspaper term. A slug is a short label for something,
containing only letters, numbers, underscores or hyphens. They’re generally used
in URLs.

Like a CharField, you can specify max_length (read the note
about database portability and max_length in that section,
too). If max_length is not specified, Django will use a
default length of 50.

Implies setting Field.db_index to True.

It is often useful to automatically prepopulate a SlugField based on the value
of some other value. You can do this automatically in the admin using


If True, the field accepts Unicode letters in addition to ASCII
letters. Defaults to False.


class SmallIntegerField(**options)[source]

Like an IntegerField, but only allows values under a certain
(database-dependent) point. Values from -32768 to 32767 are safe in all
databases supported by Django.


class TextField(**options)[source]

A large text field. The default form widget for this field is a

If you specify a max_length attribute, it will be reflected in the
Textarea widget of the auto-generated form field.
However it is not enforced at the model or database level. Use a
CharField for that.


class TimeField(auto_now=False, auto_now_add=False, **options)[source]

A time, represented in Python by a datetime.time instance. Accepts the same
auto-population options as DateField.

The default form widget for this field is a TextInput.
The admin adds some JavaScript shortcuts.


class URLField(max_length=200, **options)[source]

A CharField for a URL.

The default form widget for this field is a TextInput.

Like all CharField subclasses, URLField takes the optional
max_length argument. If you don’t specify
max_length, a default of 200 is used.


class UUIDField(**options)[source]

A field for storing universally unique identifiers. Uses Python’s
UUID class. When used on PostgreSQL, this stores in a
uuid datatype, otherwise in a char(32).

Universally unique identifiers are a good alternative to AutoField for
primary_key. The database will not generate the UUID for you, so
it is recommended to use default:

import uuid
from django.db import models

class MyUUIDModel(models.Model):
    id = models.UUIDField(primary_key=True, default=uuid.uuid4, editable=False)
    # other fields

Note that a callable (with the parentheses omitted) is passed to default,
not an instance of UUID.

Relationship fields¶

Django also defines a set of fields that represent relations.


class ForeignKey(to, on_delete, **options)[source]

A many-to-one relationship. Requires two positional arguments: the class to
which the model is related and the on_delete option.

To create a recursive relationship — an object that has a many-to-one
relationship with itself — use models.ForeignKey('self',

If you need to create a relationship on a model that has not yet been defined,
you can use the name of the model, rather than the model object itself:

from django.db import models

class Car(models.Model):
    manufacturer = models.ForeignKey(
    # ...

class Manufacturer(models.Model):
    # ...

Relationships defined this way on abstract models are resolved when the model is subclassed as a
concrete model and are not relative to the abstract model’s app_label:

from django.db import models

class AbstractCar(models.Model):
    manufacturer = models.ForeignKey('Manufacturer', on_delete=models.CASCADE)

    class Meta:
        abstract = True
from django.db import models
from products.models import AbstractCar

class Manufacturer(models.Model):

class Car(AbstractCar):

# Car.manufacturer will point to `production.Manufacturer` here.

To refer to models defined in another application, you can explicitly specify
a model with the full application label. For example, if the Manufacturer
model above is defined in another application called production, you’d
need to use:

class Car(models.Model):
    manufacturer = models.ForeignKey(

This sort of reference, called a lazy relationship, can be useful when
resolving circular import dependencies between two applications.

A database index is automatically created on the ForeignKey. You can
disable this by setting db_index to False. You may want to
avoid the overhead of an index if you are creating a foreign key for
consistency rather than joins, or if you will be creating an alternative index
like a partial or multiple column index.

Database Representation

Behind the scenes, Django appends "_id" to the field name to create its
database column name. In the above example, the database table for the Car
model will have a manufacturer_id column. (You can change this explicitly by
specifying db_column) However, your code should never have to
deal with the database column name, unless you write custom SQL. You’ll always
deal with the field names of your model object.


ForeignKey accepts other arguments that define the details of how the
relation works.


When an object referenced by a ForeignKey is deleted, Django will
emulate the behavior of the SQL constraint specified by the
on_delete argument. For example, if you have a nullable
ForeignKey and you want it to be set null when the referenced
object is deleted:

user = models.ForeignKey(

The possible values for on_delete are found in

  • CASCADE[source]

    Cascade deletes. Django emulates the behavior of the SQL constraint ON
    DELETE CASCADE and also deletes the object containing the ForeignKey.

  • PROTECT[source]

    Prevent deletion of the referenced object by raising
    ProtectedError, a subclass of

  • SET_NULL[source]

    Set the ForeignKey null; this is only possible if
    null is True.

  • SET_DEFAULT[source]

    Set the ForeignKey to its default value; a default for the
    ForeignKey must be set.

  • SET()[source]

    Set the ForeignKey to the value passed to
    SET(), or if a callable is passed in,
    the result of calling it. In most cases, passing a callable will be
    necessary to avoid executing queries at the time your is

    from django.conf import settings
    from django.contrib.auth import get_user_model
    from django.db import models
    def get_sentinel_user():
        return get_user_model().objects.get_or_create(username='deleted')[0]
    class MyModel(models.Model):
        user = models.ForeignKey(
  • DO_NOTHING[source]

    Take no action. If your database backend enforces referential
    integrity, this will cause an IntegrityError unless
    you manually add an SQL ON DELETE constraint to the database field.


Sets a limit to the available choices for this field when this field is
rendered using a ModelForm or the admin (by default, all objects
in the queryset are available to choose). Either a dictionary, a
Q object, or a callable returning a
dictionary or Q object can be used.

For example:

staff_member = models.ForeignKey(
    limit_choices_to={'is_staff': True},

causes the corresponding field on the ModelForm to list only Users
that have is_staff=True. This may be helpful in the Django admin.

The callable form can be helpful, for instance, when used in conjunction
with the Python datetime module to limit selections by date range. For

def limit_pub_date_choices():
    return {'pub_date__lte':}

limit_choices_to = limit_pub_date_choices

If limit_choices_to is or returns a Q object, which is useful for complex queries, then it will only have an effect on the choices
available in the admin when the field is not listed in
raw_id_fields in the
ModelAdmin for the model.


If a callable is used for limit_choices_to, it will be invoked
every time a new form is instantiated. It may also be invoked when a
model is validated, for example by management commands or the admin.
The admin constructs querysets to validate its form inputs in various
edge cases multiple times, so there is a possibility your callable may
be invoked several times.


The name to use for the relation from the related object back to this one.
It’s also the default value for related_query_name (the name to use
for the reverse filter name from the target model). See the related
objects documentation
for a full explanation
and example. Note that you must set this value when defining relations on
abstract models; and when you do so
some special syntax is available.

If you’d prefer Django not to create a backwards relation, set
related_name to '+' or end it with '+'. For example, this will
ensure that the User model won’t have a backwards relation to this

user = models.ForeignKey(

The name to use for the reverse filter name from the target model. It
defaults to the value of related_name or
default_related_name if set, otherwise it
defaults to the name of the model:

# Declare the ForeignKey with related_query_name
class Tag(models.Model):
    article = models.ForeignKey(
    name = models.CharField(max_length=255)

# That's now the name of the reverse filter

Like related_name, related_query_name supports app label and
class interpolation via some special syntax.


The field on the related object that the relation is to. By default, Django
uses the primary key of the related object. If you reference a different
field, that field must have unique=True.


Controls whether or not a constraint should be created in the database for
this foreign key. The default is True, and that’s almost certainly what
you want; setting this to False can be very bad for data integrity.
That said, here are some scenarios where you might want to do this:

  • You have legacy data that is not valid.
  • You’re sharding your database.

If this is set to False, accessing a related object that doesn’t exist
will raise its DoesNotExist exception.


Controls the migration framework’s reaction if this ForeignKey
is pointing at a swappable model. If it is True – the default –
then if the ForeignKey is pointing at a model which matches
the current value of settings.AUTH_USER_MODEL (or another swappable
model setting) the relationship will be stored in the migration using
a reference to the setting, not to the model directly.

You only want to override this to be False if you are sure your
model should always point towards the swapped-in model – for example,
if it is a profile model designed specifically for your custom user model.

Setting it to False does not mean you can reference a swappable model
even if it is swapped out – False just means that the migrations made
with this ForeignKey will always reference the exact model you specify
(so it will fail hard if the user tries to run with a User model you don’t
support, for example).

If in doubt, leave it to its default of True.


class ManyToManyField(to, **options)[source]

A many-to-many relationship. Requires a positional argument: the class to
which the model is related, which works exactly the same as it does for
ForeignKey, including recursive and
lazy relationships.

Related objects can be added, removed, or created with the field’s

Database Representation

Behind the scenes, Django creates an intermediary join table to represent the
many-to-many relationship. By default, this table name is generated using the
name of the many-to-many field and the name of the table for the model that
contains it. Since some databases don’t support table names above a certain
length, these table names will be automatically truncated to 64 characters and a
uniqueness hash will be used. This means you might see table names like
author_books_9cdf4; this is perfectly normal. You can manually provide the
name of the join table using the db_table option.


ManyToManyField accepts an extra set of arguments — all optional —
that control how the relationship functions.


Same as ForeignKey.related_name.


Same as ForeignKey.related_query_name.


Same as ForeignKey.limit_choices_to.

limit_choices_to has no effect when used on a ManyToManyField with a
custom intermediate table specified using the
through parameter.


Only used in the definition of ManyToManyFields on self. Consider the
following model:

from django.db import models

class Person(models.Model):
    friends = models.ManyToManyField("self")

When Django processes this model, it identifies that it has a
ManyToManyField on itself, and as a result, it doesn’t add a
person_set attribute to the Person class. Instead, the
ManyToManyField is assumed to be symmetrical — that is, if I am
your friend, then you are my friend.

If you do not want symmetry in many-to-many relationships with self, set
symmetrical to False. This will force Django to
add the descriptor for the reverse relationship, allowing
ManyToManyField relationships to be non-symmetrical.


Django will automatically generate a table to manage many-to-many
relationships. However, if you want to manually specify the intermediary
table, you can use the through option to specify
the Django model that represents the intermediate table that you want to

The most common use for this option is when you want to associate
extra data with a many-to-many relationship.

If you don’t specify an explicit through model, there is still an
implicit through model class you can use to directly access the table
created to hold the association. It has three fields to link the models.

If the source and target models differ, the following fields are

  • id: the primary key of the relation.
  • <containing_model>_id: the id of the model that declares the
  • <other_model>_id: the id of the model that the
    ManyToManyField points to.

If the ManyToManyField points from and to the same model, the following
fields are generated:

  • id: the primary key of the relation.
  • from_<model>_id: the id of the instance which points at the
    model (i.e. the source instance).
  • to_<model>_id: the id of the instance to which the relationship
    points (i.e. the target model instance).

This class can be used to query associated records for a given model
instance like a normal model.


Only used when a custom intermediary model is specified. Django will
normally determine which fields of the intermediary model to use in order
to establish a many-to-many relationship automatically. However,
consider the following models:

from django.db import models

class Person(models.Model):
    name = models.CharField(max_length=50)

class Group(models.Model):
    name = models.CharField(max_length=128)
    members = models.ManyToManyField(
        through_fields=('group', 'person'),

class Membership(models.Model):
    group = models.ForeignKey(Group, on_delete=models.CASCADE)
    person = models.ForeignKey(Person, on_delete=models.CASCADE)
    inviter = models.ForeignKey(
    invite_reason = models.CharField(max_length=64)

Membership has two foreign keys to Person (person and
inviter), which makes the relationship ambiguous and Django can’t know
which one to use. In this case, you must explicitly specify which
foreign keys Django should use using through_fields, as in the example

through_fields accepts a 2-tuple ('field1', 'field2'), where
field1 is the name of the foreign key to the model the
ManyToManyField is defined on (group in this case), and
field2 the name of the foreign key to the target model (person
in this case).

When you have more than one foreign key on an intermediary model to any
(or even both) of the models participating in a many-to-many relationship,
you must specify through_fields. This also applies to
recursive relationships
when an intermediary model is used and there are more than two
foreign keys to the model, or you want to explicitly specify which two
Django should use.

Recursive relationships using an intermediary model are always defined as
non-symmetrical — that is, with symmetrical=False
— therefore, there is the concept of a “source” and a “target”. In that
case 'field1' will be treated as the “source” of the relationship and
'field2' as the “target”.


The name of the table to create for storing the many-to-many data. If this
is not provided, Django will assume a default name based upon the names of:
the table for the model defining the relationship and the name of the field


Controls whether or not constraints should be created in the database for
the foreign keys in the intermediary table. The default is True, and
that’s almost certainly what you want; setting this to False can be
very bad for data integrity. That said, here are some scenarios where you
might want to do this:

  • You have legacy data that is not valid.
  • You’re sharding your database.

It is an error to pass both db_constraint and through.


Controls the migration framework’s reaction if this ManyToManyField
is pointing at a swappable model. If it is True – the default –
then if the ManyToManyField is pointing at a model which matches
the current value of settings.AUTH_USER_MODEL (or another swappable
model setting) the relationship will be stored in the migration using
a reference to the setting, not to the model directly.

You only want to override this to be False if you are sure your
model should always point towards the swapped-in model – for example,
if it is a profile model designed specifically for your custom user model.

If in doubt, leave it to its default of True.

ManyToManyField does not support validators.

null has no effect since there is no way to require a
relationship at the database level.


class OneToOneField(to, on_delete, parent_link=False, **options)[source]

A one-to-one relationship. Conceptually, this is similar to a
ForeignKey with unique=True, but the
“reverse” side of the relation will directly return a single object.

This is most useful as the primary key of a model which “extends”
another model in some way; Multi-table inheritance is
implemented by adding an implicit one-to-one relation from the child
model to the parent model, for example.

One positional argument is required: the class to which the model will be
related. This works exactly the same as it does for ForeignKey,
including all the options regarding recursive
and lazy relationships.

If you do not specify the related_name argument for
the OneToOneField, Django will use the lower-case name of the current model
as default value.

With the following example:

from django.conf import settings
from django.db import models

class MySpecialUser(models.Model):
    user = models.OneToOneField(
    supervisor = models.OneToOneField(

your resulting User model will have the following attributes:

>>> user = User.objects.get(pk=1)
>>> hasattr(user, 'myspecialuser')
>>> hasattr(user, 'supervisor_of')

A DoesNotExist exception is raised when accessing the reverse relationship
if an entry in the related table doesn’t exist. For example, if a user doesn’t
have a supervisor designated by MySpecialUser:

>>> user.supervisor_of
Traceback (most recent call last):
DoesNotExist: User matching query does not exist.

Additionally, OneToOneField accepts all of the extra arguments
accepted by ForeignKey, plus one extra argument:

When True and used in a model which inherits from another
concrete model, indicates that this field should be used as the
link back to the parent class, rather than the extra
OneToOneField which would normally be implicitly created by

See One-to-one relationships for usage
examples of OneToOneField.

Field API reference¶

class Field[source]

Field is an abstract class that represents a database table column.
Django uses fields to create the database table (db_type()), to map
Python types to database (get_prep_value()) and vice-versa

A field is thus a fundamental piece in different Django APIs, notably,
models and querysets.

In models, a field is instantiated as a class attribute and represents a
particular table column, see 模型. It has attributes
such as null and unique, and methods that Django uses to
map the field value to database-specific values.

A Field is a subclass of
RegisterLookupMixin and thus both
Transform and
Lookup can be registered on it to be used
in QuerySets (e.g. field_name__exact="foo"). All built-in
are registered by default.

All of Django’s built-in fields, such as CharField, are particular
implementations of Field. If you need a custom field, you can either
subclass any of the built-in fields or write a Field from scratch. In
either case, see 编写自定义 model fields.


A verbose description of the field, e.g. for the
django.contrib.admindocs application.

The description can be of the form:

description = _("String (up to %(max_length)s)")

where the arguments are interpolated from the field’s __dict__.

To map a Field to a database-specific type, Django exposes several


Returns a string naming this field for backend specific purposes.
By default, it returns the class name.

See Emulating built-in field types for usage in custom fields.


Returns the database column data type for the Field, taking
into account the connection.

See Custom database types for usage in custom fields.


Returns the database column data type for fields such as ForeignKey
and OneToOneField that point to the Field, taking
into account the connection.

See Custom database types for usage in custom fields.

There are three main situations where Django needs to interact with the
database backend and fields:

  • when it queries the database (Python value -> database backend value)
  • when it loads data from the database (database backend value -> Python
  • when it saves to the database (Python value -> database backend value)

When querying, get_db_prep_value() and get_prep_value() are used:


value is the current value of the model’s attribute, and the method
should return data in a format that has been prepared for use as a
parameter in a query.

See Converting Python objects to query values for usage.

get_db_prep_value(value, connection, prepared=False)[source]

Converts value to a backend-specific value. By default it returns
value if prepared=True and get_prep_value() if is

See Converting query values to database values for usage.

When loading data, from_db_value() is used:

from_db_value(value, expression, connection)

Converts a value as returned by the database to a Python object. It is
the reverse of get_prep_value().

This method is not used for most built-in fields as the database
backend already returns the correct Python type, or the backend itself
does the conversion.

See Converting values to Python objects for usage.


For performance reasons, from_db_value is not implemented as a
no-op on fields which do not require it (all Django fields).
Consequently you may not call super in your definition.

When saving, pre_save() and get_db_prep_save() are used:

get_db_prep_save(value, connection)[source]

Same as the get_db_prep_value(), but called when the field value
must be saved to the database. By default returns

pre_save(model_instance, add)[source]

Method called prior to get_db_prep_save() to prepare the value
before being saved (e.g. for DateField.auto_now).

model_instance is the instance this field belongs to and add
is whether the instance is being saved to the database for the first

It should return the value of the appropriate attribute from
model_instance for this field. The attribute name is in
self.attname (this is set up by Field).

See 在保存前预处理数值 for usage.

Fields often receive their values as a different type, either from
serialization or from forms.


Converts the value into the correct Python object. It acts as the
reverse of value_to_string(), and is also called in

See Converting values to Python objects for usage.

Besides saving to the database, the field also needs to know how to
serialize its value:


Converts obj to a string. Used to serialize the value of the field.

See Converting field data for serialization for usage.

When using model forms, the Field
needs to know which form field it should be represented by:

formfield(form_class=None, choices_form_class=None, **kwargs)[source]

Returns the default django.forms.Field of this field for

By default, if both form_class and choices_form_class are
None, it uses CharField. If the field has
choices and choices_form_class
isn’t specified, it uses TypedChoiceField.

See Specifying the form field for a model field for usage.


Returns a 4-tuple with enough information to recreate the field:

  1. The name of the field on the model.
  2. The import path of the field (e.g. "django.db.models.IntegerField").
    This should be the most portable version, so less specific may be better.
  3. A list of positional arguments.
  4. A dict of keyword arguments.

This method must be added to fields prior to 1.7 to migrate its data
using Migrations.

Every Field instance contains several attributes that allow
introspecting its behavior. Use these attributes instead of isinstance
checks when you need to write code that depends on a field’s functionality.
These attributes can be used together with the Model._meta API to narrow down a search for specific field types.
Custom model fields should implement these flags.

Attributes for fields¶


Boolean flag that indicates if the field was automatically created, such
as the OneToOneField used by model inheritance.


Boolean flag that indicates if the field has a database column associated
with it.


Boolean flag that indicates if a field is used to back another non-hidden
field’s functionality (e.g. the content_type and object_id fields
that make up a GenericForeignKey). The hidden flag is used to
distinguish what constitutes the public subset of fields on the model from
all the fields on the model.


excludes hidden fields by default. Pass in include_hidden=True to
return hidden fields in the results.


Boolean flag that indicates if a field contains references to one or
more other models for its functionality (e.g. ForeignKey,
ManyToManyField, OneToOneField, etc.).


Returns the model on which the field is defined. If a field is defined on
a superclass of a model, model will refer to the superclass, not the
class of the instance.

Attributes for fields with relations¶

These attributes are used to query for the cardinality and other details of a
relation. These attribute are present on all fields; however, they will only
have boolean values (rather than None) if the field is a relation type


Boolean flag that is True if the field has a many-to-many relation;
False otherwise. The only field included with Django where this is
True is ManyToManyField.


Boolean flag that is True if the field has a many-to-one relation, such
as a ForeignKey; False otherwise.


Boolean flag that is True if the field has a one-to-many relation, such
as a GenericRelation or the reverse of a ForeignKey; False


Boolean flag that is True if the field has a one-to-one relation, such
as a OneToOneField; False otherwise.


Points to the model the field relates to. For example, Author in
ForeignKey(Author, on_delete=models.CASCADE). The related_model for
a GenericForeignKey is always None.