Django2.0手册:Related objects reference

class RelatedManager

A “related manager” is a manager used in a one-to-many or many-to-many
related context. This happens in two cases:

  • The “other side” of a ForeignKey relation.
    That is:

    from django.db import models
    class Reporter(models.Model):
        # ...
    class Article(models.Model):
        reporter = models.ForeignKey(Reporter, on_delete=models.CASCADE)

    In the above example, the methods below will be available on
    the manager reporter.article_set.

  • Both sides of a ManyToManyField relation:

    class Topping(models.Model):
        # ...
    class Pizza(models.Model):
        toppings = models.ManyToManyField(Topping)

    In this example, the methods below will be available both on
    topping.pizza_set and on pizza.toppings.

add(*objs, bulk=True)

Adds the specified model objects to the related object set.


>>> b = Blog.objects.get(id=1)
>>> e = Entry.objects.get(id=234)
>>> b.entry_set.add(e) # Associates Entry e with Blog b.

In the example above, in the case of a
ForeignKey relationship,
is used to perform the update. This requires the objects to already be

You can use the bulk=False argument to instead have the related
manager perform the update by calling

Using add() with a many-to-many relationship, however, will not
call any save() methods (the bulk argument doesn’t exist), but
rather create the relationships using QuerySet.bulk_create(). If you need to execute
some custom logic when a relationship is created, listen to the
m2m_changed signal, which will
trigger pre_add and post_add actions.

Using add() on a relation that already exists won’t duplicate the
relation, but it will still trigger signals.


Creates a new object, saves it and puts it in the related object set.
Returns the newly created object:

>>> b = Blog.objects.get(id=1)
>>> e = b.entry_set.create(
...     headline='Hello',
...     body_text='Hi',
..., 1, 1)
... )

# No need to call at this point -- it's already been saved.

This is equivalent to (but much simpler than):

>>> b = Blog.objects.get(id=1)
>>> e = Entry(
...     blog=b,
...     headline='Hello',
...     body_text='Hi',
..., 1, 1)
... )

Note that there’s no need to specify the keyword argument of the model
that defines the relationship. In the above example, we don’t pass the
parameter blog to create(). Django figures out that the new
Entry object’s blog field should be set to b.


Removes the specified model objects from the related object set:

>>> b = Blog.objects.get(id=1)
>>> e = Entry.objects.get(id=234)
>>> b.entry_set.remove(e) # Disassociates Entry e from Blog b.

Similar to add(), is called in the example above
to perform the update. Using remove() with a many-to-many
relationship, however, will delete the relationships using
QuerySet.delete() which
means no model save() methods are called; listen to the
m2m_changed signal if you wish to
execute custom code when a relationship is deleted.

For ForeignKey objects, this method only
exists if null=True. If the related field can’t be set to None
(NULL), then an object can’t be removed from a relation without
being added to another. In the above example, removing e from
b.entry_set() is equivalent to doing = None, and because
the blog ForeignKey doesn’t have
null=True, this is invalid.

For ForeignKey objects, this method accepts
a bulk argument to control how to perform the operation.
If True (the default), QuerySet.update() is used.
If bulk=False, the save() method of each individual model
instance is called instead. This triggers the
pre_save and
post_save signals and comes at the
expense of performance.


Removes all objects from the related object set:

>>> b = Blog.objects.get(id=1)
>>> b.entry_set.clear()

Note this doesn’t delete the related objects — it just disassociates

Just like remove(), clear() is only available on
ForeignKeys where null=True and it also
accepts the bulk keyword argument.

set(objs, bulk=True, clear=False)

Replace the set of related objects:

>>> new_list = [obj1, obj2, obj3]
>>> e.related_set.set(new_list)

This method accepts a clear argument to control how to perform the
operation. If False (the default), the elements missing from the
new set are removed using remove() and only the new ones are added.
If clear=True, the clear() method is called instead and the
whole set is added at once.

The bulk argument is passed on to add().

Note that since set() is a compound operation, it is subject to
race conditions. For instance, new objects may be added to the database
in between the call to clear() and the call to add().


Note that add(), create(), remove(), clear(), and
set() all apply database changes immediately for all types of
related fields. In other words, there is no need to call save()
on either end of the relationship.

Also, if you are using an intermediate model for a many-to-many relationship, then the
add(), create(), remove(), and set() methods are

If you use prefetch_related(),
the add(), remove(), clear(), and set() methods clear
the prefetched cache.

Changed in Django 1.11:

The clearing of the prefetched cache described above was added.