Django2.0手册:How to install Django

This document will get you up and running with Django.

安装Python¶

Django is a Python Web framework. See 我应该使用哪个版本的Python来配合Django? for
details.

获取最新版本的Python可以通过:访问 https://www.python.org/downloads/ ;或者操作系统的包管理工具。

基于 Jython 的 Django

Jython (a Python implementation for the Java platform) is not compatible
with Python 3, so Django ≥ 2.0 cannot run on Jython.

Python on Windows

If you are just starting with Django and using Windows, you may find
如何在Windows上安装Django useful.

Install Apache and mod_wsgi¶

If you just want to experiment with Django, skip ahead to the next
section; Django includes a lightweight web server you can use for
testing, so you won’t need to set up Apache until you’re ready to
deploy Django in production.

If you want to use Django on a production site, use Apache with
mod_wsgi. mod_wsgi operates in one of two modes: embedded
mode or daemon mode. In embedded mode, mod_wsgi is similar to
mod_perl — it embeds Python within Apache and loads Python code into
memory when the server starts. Code stays in memory throughout the
life of an Apache process, which leads to significant performance
gains over other server arrangements. In daemon mode, mod_wsgi spawns
an independent daemon process that handles requests. The daemon
process can run as a different user than the Web server, possibly
leading to improved security. The daemon process can be restarted
without restarting the entire Apache Web server, possibly making
refreshing your codebase more seamless. Consult the mod_wsgi
documentation to determine which mode is right for your setup. Make
sure you have Apache installed with the mod_wsgi module activated.
Django will work with any version of Apache that supports mod_wsgi.

See How to use Django with mod_wsgi
for information on how to configure mod_wsgi once you have it
installed.

If you can’t use mod_wsgi for some reason, fear not: Django supports many other
deployment options. One is uWSGI; it works
very well with nginx. Additionally, Django follows the WSGI spec
(PEP 3333), which allows it to run on a variety of server platforms.

Get your database running¶

If you plan to use Django’s database API functionality, you’ll need to make
sure a database server is running. Django supports many different database
servers and is officially supported with PostgreSQL, MySQL, Oracle and
SQLite.

If you are developing a simple project or something you don’t plan to deploy
in a production environment, SQLite is generally the simplest option as it
doesn’t require running a separate server. However, SQLite has many differences
from other databases, so if you are working on something substantial, it’s
recommended to develop with the same database that you plan on using in
production.

In addition to the officially supported databases, there are backends
provided by 3rd parties
that allow you to use other
databases with Django.

In addition to a database backend, you’ll need to make sure your Python
database bindings are installed.

  • If you’re using PostgreSQL, you’ll need the psycopg2 package. Refer to the
    PostgreSQL notes for further details.
  • If you’re using MySQL, you’ll need a DB API driver like mysqlclient. See notes for the MySQL
    backend
    for details.
  • If you’re using SQLite you might want to read the SQLite backend notes.
  • If you’re using Oracle, you’ll need a copy of cx_Oracle, but please
    read the notes for the Oracle backend for details
    regarding supported versions of both Oracle and cx_Oracle.
  • If you’re using an unofficial 3rd party backend, please consult the
    documentation provided for any additional requirements.

If you plan to use Django’s manage.py migrate command to automatically
create database tables for your models (after first installing Django and
creating a project), you’ll need to ensure that Django has permission to create
and alter tables in the database you’re using; if you plan to manually create
the tables, you can simply grant Django SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE and
DELETE permissions. After creating a database user with these
permissions, you’ll specify the details in your project’s settings file,
see DATABASES for details.

If you’re using Django’s testing framework to test
database queries, Django will need permission to create a test database.

移除任何老版本的Django¶

If you are upgrading your installation of Django from a previous version,
you will need to uninstall the old Django version before installing the
new version.

If you installed Django using pip or easy_install previously, installing
with pip or easy_install again will automatically take care of the old
version, so you don’t need to do it yourself.

If you previously installed Django using python setup.py install,
uninstalling is as simple as deleting the django directory from your Python
site-packages. To find the directory you need to remove, you can run the
following at your shell prompt (not the interactive Python prompt):

$ python -c "import django; print(django.__path__)"

Install the Django code¶

Installation instructions are slightly different depending on whether you’re
installing a distribution-specific package, downloading the latest official
release, or fetching the latest development version.

It’s easy, no matter which way you choose.

Installing an official release with pip¶

This is the recommended way to install Django.

  1. Install pip. The easiest is to use the standalone pip installer. If your
    distribution already has pip installed, you might need to update it if
    it’s outdated. If it’s outdated, you’ll know because installation won’t
    work.
  2. Take a look at virtualenv and virtualenvwrapper. These tools provide
    isolated Python environments, which are more practical than installing
    packages systemwide. They also allow installing packages without
    administrator privileges. The contributing tutorial walks through how to create a virtualenv.
  3. After you’ve created and activated a virtual environment, enter the command
    pip install Django at the shell prompt.

Installing a distribution-specific package¶

Check the distribution specific notes to see if
your platform/distribution provides official Django packages/installers.
Distribution-provided packages will typically allow for automatic installation
of dependencies and easy upgrade paths; however, these packages will rarely
contain the latest release of Django.

Installing the development version¶

Tracking Django development

If you decide to use the latest development version of Django,
you’ll want to pay close attention to the development timeline,
and you’ll want to keep an eye on the release notes for the
upcoming release
. This will help you stay
on top of any new features you might want to use, as well as any changes
you’ll need to make to your code when updating your copy of Django.
(For stable releases, any necessary changes are documented in the
release notes.)

If you’d like to be able to update your Django code occasionally with the
latest bug fixes and improvements, follow these instructions:

  1. Make sure that you have Git installed and that you can run its commands
    from a shell. (Enter git help at a shell prompt to test this.)

  2. Check out Django’s main development branch like so:

    $ git clone https://github.com/django/django.git
    

    This will create a directory django in your current directory.

  3. Make sure that the Python interpreter can load Django’s code. The most
    convenient way to do this is to use virtualenv, virtualenvwrapper, and
    pip. The contributing tutorial walks through
    how to create a virtualenv.

  4. After setting up and activating the virtualenv, run the following command:

    $ pip install -e django/
    

    This will make Django’s code importable, and will also make the
    django-admin utility command available. In other words, you’re all
    set!

When you want to update your copy of the Django source code, just run the
command git pull from within the django directory. When you do this,
Git will automatically download any changes.