Flask教程:Upgrading to Newer Releases

Flask itself is changing like any software is changing over time. Most of
the changes are the nice kind, the kind where you don’t have to change
anything in your code to profit from a new release.

However every once in a while there are changes that do require some
changes in your code or there are changes that make it possible for you to
improve your own code quality by taking advantage of new features in
Flask.

This section of the documentation enumerates all the changes in Flask from
release to release and how you can change your code to have a painless
updating experience.

If you want to use the easy_install command to upgrade your Flask
installation, make sure to pass it the -U parameter:

$ easy_install -U Flask

Version 0.10¶

The biggest change going from 0.9 to 0.10 is that the cookie serialization
format changed from pickle to a specialized JSON format. This change has
been done in order to avoid the damage an attacker can do if the secret
key is leaked. When you upgrade you will notice two major changes: all
sessions that were issued before the upgrade are invalidated and you can
only store a limited amount of types in the session. The new sessions are
by design much more restricted to only allow JSON with a few small
extensions for tuples and strings with HTML markup.

In order to not break people’s sessions it is possible to continue using
the old session system by using the Flask-OldSessions extension.

Flask also started storing the flask.g object on the application
context instead of the request context. This change should be transparent
for you but it means that you now can store things on the g object
when there is no request context yet but an application context. The old
flask.Flask.request_globals_class attribute was renamed to
flask.Flask.app_ctx_globals_class.

Version 0.9¶

The behavior of returning tuples from a function was simplified. If you
return a tuple it no longer defines the arguments for the response object
you’re creating, it’s now always a tuple in the form (response, status,
headers)
where at least one item has to be provided. If you depend on
the old behavior, you can add it easily by subclassing Flask:

class TraditionalFlask(Flask):
    def make_response(self, rv):
        if isinstance(rv, tuple):
            return self.response_class(*rv)
        return Flask.make_response(self, rv)

If you maintain an extension that was using _request_ctx_stack
before, please consider changing to _app_ctx_stack if it makes
sense for your extension. For instance, the app context stack makes sense for
extensions which connect to databases. Using the app context stack instead of
the request stack will make extensions more readily handle use cases outside of
requests.

Version 0.8¶

Flask introduced a new session interface system. We also noticed that
there was a naming collision between flask.session the module that
implements sessions and flask.session which is the global session
object. With that introduction we moved the implementation details for
the session system into a new module called flask.sessions. If you
used the previously undocumented session support we urge you to upgrade.

If invalid JSON data was submitted Flask will now raise a
BadRequest exception instead of letting the
default ValueError bubble up. This has the advantage that you no
longer have to handle that error to avoid an internal server error showing
up for the user. If you were catching this down explicitly in the past
as ValueError you will need to change this.

Due to a bug in the test client Flask 0.7 did not trigger teardown
handlers when the test client was used in a with statement. This was
since fixed but might require some changes in your testsuites if you
relied on this behavior.

Version 0.7¶

In Flask 0.7 we cleaned up the code base internally a lot and did some
backwards incompatible changes that make it easier to implement larger
applications with Flask. Because we want to make upgrading as easy as
possible we tried to counter the problems arising from these changes by
providing a script that can ease the transition.

The script scans your whole application and generates an unified diff with
changes it assumes are safe to apply. However as this is an automated
tool it won’t be able to find all use cases and it might miss some. We
internally spread a lot of deprecation warnings all over the place to make
it easy to find pieces of code that it was unable to upgrade.

We strongly recommend that you hand review the generated patchfile and
only apply the chunks that look good.

If you are using git as version control system for your project we
recommend applying the patch with path -p1 < patchfile.diff and then
using the interactive commit feature to only apply the chunks that look
good.

To apply the upgrade script do the following:

  1. Download the script: flask-07-upgrade.py

  2. Run it in the directory of your application:

    python flask-07-upgrade.py > patchfile.diff
    
  3. Review the generated patchfile.

  4. Apply the patch:

    patch -p1 < patchfile.diff
    
  5. If you were using per-module template folders you need to move some
    templates around. Previously if you had a folder named templates
    next to a blueprint named admin the implicit template path
    automatically was admin/index.html for a template file called
    templates/index.html. This no longer is the case. Now you need
    to name the template templates/admin/index.html. The tool will
    not detect this so you will have to do that on your own.

Please note that deprecation warnings are disabled by default starting
with Python 2.7. In order to see the deprecation warnings that might be
emitted you have to enabled them with the warnings module.

If you are working with windows and you lack the patch command line
utility you can get it as part of various Unix runtime environments for
windows including cygwin, msysgit or ming32. Also source control systems
like svn, hg or git have builtin support for applying unified diffs as
generated by the tool. Check the manual of your version control system
for more information.

Bug in Request Locals¶

Due to a bug in earlier implementations the request local proxies now
raise a RuntimeError instead of an AttributeError when they
are unbound. If you caught these exceptions with AttributeError
before, you should catch them with RuntimeError now.

Additionally the send_file() function is now issuing
deprecation warnings if you depend on functionality that will be removed
in Flask 1.0. Previously it was possible to use etags and mimetypes
when file objects were passed. This was unreliable and caused issues
for a few setups. If you get a deprecation warning, make sure to
update your application to work with either filenames there or disable
etag attaching and attach them yourself.

Old code:

return send_file(my_file_object)
return send_file(my_file_object)

New code:

return send_file(my_file_object, add_etags=False)

Upgrading to new Teardown Handling¶

We streamlined the behavior of the callbacks for request handling. For
things that modify the response the after_request()
decorators continue to work as expected, but for things that absolutely
must happen at the end of request we introduced the new
teardown_request() decorator. Unfortunately that
change also made after-request work differently under error conditions.
It’s not consistently skipped if exceptions happen whereas previously it
might have been called twice to ensure it is executed at the end of the
request.

If you have database connection code that looks like this:

@app.after_request
def after_request(response):
    g.db.close()
    return response

You are now encouraged to use this instead:

@app.teardown_request
def after_request(exception):
    if hasattr(g, 'db'):
        g.db.close()

On the upside this change greatly improves the internal code flow and
makes it easier to customize the dispatching and error handling. This
makes it now a lot easier to write unit tests as you can prevent closing
down of database connections for a while. You can take advantage of the
fact that the teardown callbacks are called when the response context is
removed from the stack so a test can query the database after request
handling:

with app.test_client() as client:
    resp = client.get('/')
    # g.db is still bound if there is such a thing

# and here it's gone

Manual Error Handler Attaching¶

While it is still possible to attach error handlers to
Flask.error_handlers it’s discouraged to do so and in fact
deprecated. In general we no longer recommend custom error handler
attaching via assignments to the underlying dictionary due to the more
complex internal handling to support arbitrary exception classes and
blueprints. See Flask.errorhandler() for more information.

The proper upgrade is to change this:

app.error_handlers[403] = handle_error

Into this:

app.register_error_handler(403, handle_error)

Alternatively you should just attach the function with a decorator:

@app.errorhandler(403)
def handle_error(e):
    ...

(Note that register_error_handler() is new in Flask 0.7)

Blueprint Support¶

Blueprints replace the previous concept of “Modules” in Flask. They
provide better semantics for various features and work better with large
applications. The update script provided should be able to upgrade your
applications automatically, but there might be some cases where it fails
to upgrade. What changed?

  • Blueprints need explicit names. Modules had an automatic name
    guesssing scheme where the shortname for the module was taken from the
    last part of the import module. The upgrade script tries to guess
    that name but it might fail as this information could change at
    runtime.
  • Blueprints have an inverse behavior for url_for(). Previously
    .foo told url_for() that it should look for the endpoint
    foo on the application. Now it means “relative to current module”.
    The script will inverse all calls to url_for() automatically for
    you. It will do this in a very eager way so you might end up with
    some unnecessary leading dots in your code if you’re not using
    modules.
  • Blueprints do not automatically provide static folders. They will
    also no longer automatically export templates from a folder called
    templates next to their location however but it can be enabled from
    the constructor. Same with static files: if you want to continue
    serving static files you need to tell the constructor explicitly the
    path to the static folder (which can be relative to the blueprint’s
    module path).
  • Rendering templates was simplified. Now the blueprints can provide
    template folders which are added to a general template searchpath.
    This means that you need to add another subfolder with the blueprint’s
    name into that folder if you want blueprintname/template.html as
    the template name.

If you continue to use the Module object which is deprecated, Flask will
restore the previous behavior as good as possible. However we strongly
recommend upgrading to the new blueprints as they provide a lot of useful
improvement such as the ability to attach a blueprint multiple times,
blueprint specific error handlers and a lot more.

Version 0.6¶

Flask 0.6 comes with a backwards incompatible change which affects the
order of after-request handlers. Previously they were called in the order
of the registration, now they are called in reverse order. This change
was made so that Flask behaves more like people expected it to work and
how other systems handle request pre- and postprocessing. If you
depend on the order of execution of post-request functions, be sure to
change the order.

Another change that breaks backwards compatibility is that context
processors will no longer override values passed directly to the template
rendering function. If for example request is as variable passed
directly to the template, the default context processor will not override
it with the current request object. This makes it easier to extend
context processors later to inject additional variables without breaking
existing template not expecting them.

Version 0.5¶

Flask 0.5 is the first release that comes as a Python package instead of a
single module. There were a couple of internal refactoring so if you
depend on undocumented internal details you probably have to adapt the
imports.

The following changes may be relevant to your application:

  • autoescaping no longer happens for all templates. Instead it is
    configured to only happen on files ending with .html, .htm,
    .xml and .xhtml. If you have templates with different
    extensions you should override the
    select_jinja_autoescape() method.
  • Flask no longer supports zipped applications in this release. This
    functionality might come back in future releases if there is demand
    for this feature. Removing support for this makes the Flask internal
    code easier to understand and fixes a couple of small issues that make
    debugging harder than necessary.
  • The create_jinja_loader function is gone. If you want to customize
    the Jinja loader now, use the
    create_jinja_environment() method instead.

Version 0.4¶

For application developers there are no changes that require changes in
your code. In case you are developing on a Flask extension however, and
that extension has a unittest-mode you might want to link the activation
of that mode to the new TESTING flag.

Version 0.3¶

Flask 0.3 introduces configuration support and logging as well as
categories for flashing messages. All these are features that are 100%
backwards compatible but you might want to take advantage of them.

Configuration Support¶

The configuration support makes it easier to write any kind of application
that requires some sort of configuration. (Which most likely is the case
for any application out there).

If you previously had code like this:

app.debug = DEBUG
app.secret_key = SECRET_KEY

You no longer have to do that, instead you can just load a configuration
into the config object. How this works is outlined in 配置处理.

Logging Integration¶

Flask now configures a logger for you with some basic and useful defaults.
If you run your application in production and want to profit from
automatic error logging, you might be interested in attaching a proper log
handler. Also you can start logging warnings and errors into the logger
when appropriately. For more information on that, read
记录应用程序错误.

Categories for Flash Messages¶

Flash messages can now have categories attached. This makes it possible
to render errors, warnings or regular messages differently for example.
This is an opt-in feature because it requires some rethinking in the code.

Read all about that in the 消息闪现 pattern.