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Django2.0手册 AI君 127℃

This section is addressed to the committers and to anyone interested in knowing
how code gets committed into Django. If you’re a community member who wants to
contribute code to Django, look at Working with Git and GitHub instead.

Handling pull requests¶

Since Django is now hosted at GitHub, most patches are provided in the form of
pull requests.

When committing a pull request, make sure each individual commit matches the
commit guidelines described below. Contributors are expected to provide the
best pull requests possible. In practice however, committers – who will likely
be more familiar with the commit guidelines – may decide to bring a commit up
to standard themselves.


Before merging, but after reviewing, have Jenkins test the pull request by
commenting “buildbot, test this please” on the PR.
See our Jenkins wiki page for more details.

An easy way to checkout a pull request locally is to add an alias to your
~/.gitconfig (upstream is assumed to be django/django):

    pr = !sh -c \"git fetch upstream pull/${1}/head:pr/${1} && git checkout pr/${1}\"

Now you can simply run git pr #### to checkout the corresponding pull

At this point, you can work on the code. Use git rebase -i and git
commit --amend
to make sure the commits have the expected level of quality.
Once you’re ready:

$ # Pull in the latest changes from master.
$ git checkout master
$ git pull upstream master
$ # Rebase the pull request on master.
$ git checkout pr/####
$ git rebase master
$ git checkout master
$ # Merge the work as "fast-forward" to master to avoid a merge commit.
$ # (in practice, you can omit "--ff-only" since you just rebased)
$ git merge --ff-only pr/XXXX
$ # If you're not sure if you did things correctly, check that only the
$ # changes you expect will be pushed to upstream.
$ git push --dry-run upstream master
$ # Push!
$ git push upstream master
$ # Delete the pull request branch.
$ git branch -d pr/xxxx

For changes on your own branches, force push to your fork after rebasing on
master but before merging and pushing to upstream. This allows the commit
hashes on master and your branch to match which automatically closes the pull
request. Since you can’t push to other contributors’ branches, comment on the
pull request “Merged in XXXXXXX” (replacing with the commit hash) after you
merge it. Trac checks for this message format to indicate on the ticket page
whether or not a pull request is merged.

If a pull request doesn’t need to be merged as multiple commits, you can use
GitHub’s “Squash and merge” button on the website. Edit the commit message as
needed to conform to the guidelines and remove
the pull request number that’s automatically appended to the message’s first

When rewriting the commit history of a pull request, the goal is to make
Django’s commit history as usable as possible:

  • If a patch contains back-and-forth commits, then rewrite those into one.
    For example, if a commit adds some code and a second commit fixes stylistic
    issues introduced in the first commit, those commits should be squashed
    before merging.
  • Separate changes to different commits by logical grouping: if you do a
    stylistic cleanup at the same time as you do other changes to a file,
    separating the changes into two different commits will make reviewing
    history easier.
  • Beware of merges of upstream branches in the pull requests.
  • Tests should pass and docs should build after each commit. Neither the
    tests nor the docs should emit warnings.
  • Trivial and small patches usually are best done in one commit. Medium to
    large work may be split into multiple commits if it makes sense.

Practicality beats purity, so it is up to each committer to decide how much
history mangling to do for a pull request. The main points are engaging the
community, getting work done, and having a usable commit history.


In addition, please follow the following guidelines when committing code to
Django’s Git repository:

  • Never change the published history of django/django branches by force
    pushing. If you absolutely must (for security reasons for example), first
    discuss the situation with the team.

  • For any medium-to-big changes, where “medium-to-big” is according to
    your judgment, please bring things up on the django-developers
    mailing list before making the change.

    If you bring something up on django-developers and nobody responds,
    please don’t take that to mean your idea is great and should be
    implemented immediately because nobody contested it. Everyone doesn’t always
    have a lot of time to read mailing list discussions immediately, so you may
    have to wait a couple of days before getting a response.

  • Write detailed commit messages in the past tense, not present tense.

    • 正确:”Fixed Unicode bug in RSS API.”
    • 错误:”Fixes Unicode bug in RSS API.”
    • 错误:”Fixing Unicode bug in RSS API.”

    The commit message should be in lines of 72 chars maximum. There should be
    a subject line, separated by a blank line and then paragraphs of 72 char
    lines. The limits are soft. For the subject line, shorter is better. In the
    body of the commit message more detail is better than less:

    Fixed #18307 -- Added git workflow guidelines
    Refactored the Django's documentation to remove mentions of SVN
    specific tasks. Added guidelines of how to use Git, GitHub, and
    how to use pull request together with Trac instead.

    If the patch wasn’t a pull request, you should credit the contributors in
    the commit message: “Thanks A for report, B for the patch and C for the

  • For commits to a branch, prefix the commit message with the branch name.
    For example: “[1.4.x] Fixed #xxxxx — Added support for mind reading.”

  • Limit commits to the most granular change that makes sense. This means,
    use frequent small commits rather than infrequent large commits. For
    example, if implementing feature X requires a small change to library Y,
    first commit the change to library Y, then commit feature X in a separate
    commit. This goes a long way in helping everyone follow your changes.

  • Separate bug fixes from feature changes. Bugfixes may need to be backported
    to the stable branch, according to Supported versions.

  • If your commit closes a ticket in the Django ticket tracker, begin
    your commit message with the text “Fixed #xxxxx”, where “xxxxx” is the
    number of the ticket your commit fixes. Example: “Fixed #123 — Added
    whizbang feature.”. We’ve rigged Trac so that any commit message in that
    format will automatically close the referenced ticket and post a comment
    to it with the full commit message.

    If your commit closes a ticket and is in a branch, use the branch name
    first, then the “Fixed #xxxxx.” For example:
    “[1.4.x] Fixed #123 — Added whizbang feature.”

    For the curious, we’re using a Trac plugin for this.


Note that the Trac integration doesn’t know anything about pull requests.
So if you try to close a pull request with the phrase “closes #400” in your
commit message, GitHub will close the pull request, but the Trac plugin
will also close the same numbered ticket in Trac.

  • If your commit references a ticket in the Django ticket tracker but
    does not close the ticket, include the phrase “Refs #xxxxx”, where “xxxxx”
    is the number of the ticket your commit references. This will automatically
    post a comment to the appropriate ticket.

  • Write commit messages for backports using this pattern:

    [<Django version>] Fixed <ticket> -- <description>
    Backport of <revision> from <branch>.


    [1.3.x] Fixed #17028 -- Changed ->
    Backport of 80c0cbf1c97047daed2c5b41b296bbc56fe1d7e3 from master.

    There’s a script on the wiki
    to automate this.



But try very hard to ensure that mistakes don’t happen. Just because we have a
reversion policy doesn’t relax your responsibility to aim for the highest
quality possible. Really: double-check your work, or have it checked by
another committer, before you commit it in the first place!


  • 可能的话,让原始作者撤回他们的提交。
  • 不要在未获得原始作者同意的情况下还原其他作者的更改。
  • Use git revert — this will make a reverse commit, but the original
    commit will still be part of the commit history.
  • If the original author can’t be reached (within a reasonable amount
    of time — a day or so) and the problem is severe — crashing bug,
    major test failures, etc. — then ask for objections on the
    django-developers mailing list then revert if there are none.
  • If the problem is small (a feature commit after feature freeze,
    say), wait it out.
  • If there’s a disagreement between the committer and the
    reverter-to-be then try to work it out on the django-developers
    mailing list. If an agreement can’t be reached then it should
    be put to a vote.
  • If the commit introduced a confirmed, disclosed security
    vulnerability then the commit may be reverted immediately without
    permission from anyone.
  • The release branch maintainer may back out commits to the release
    branch without permission if the commit breaks the release branch.
  • If you mistakenly push a topic branch to django/django, just delete it.
    For instance, if you did: git push upstream feature_antigravity,
    just do a reverse push: git push upstream :feature_antigravity.

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