AI教程网 - 未来以来,拥抱AI;新手入门,从AI教程网开始......

Django2.0手册:编写文档

Django2.0手册 AI君 109℃

我们极其重视文档的一致性和可读性。毕竟,Django 是在需要快速发布新闻的环境下开发的!所以,我们像对待我们的代码一样对待我们的文档:我们期望尽可能频繁地更新它。

一般来说,文档会在以下两种情况时更新:

  • 一般改进:通过更清晰的书写和更多示例,更正、修复文档错误,更好的解释功能。
  • 新特性:自上一个版本发布后,添加到框架中的功能文档。

本节介绍文档作者如何以最有用和最不容易出错的方式修改文档。

获得原始文档¶

Django 文档可在 https://docs.djangoproject.com/ 以网页的形式阅读,但我们以一种更灵活的方式编辑它——一系列的文本文件。这些文件位于 Django 的每个发布分支的顶级目录 docs/ 下。

如果你想修改文档,请先从源码仓库获取开发版的 Django (参见 安装开发版)。开发版拥有最新最好的文档,就像它拥有最新最好的代码一样。我们也会在最新发布分支上提交针对文档的修复和优化(取决于提交者)。这是因为让最新版本的文档保持最新和正确是非常有利的(参见 不同版本文档间的区别)。

开始使用 Sphinx¶

Django 的文档使用 Sphinx 文档系统——基于 docutils。基本思想是将轻量格式话的纯文本转化为 HTML,PDF 或其它任意输出格式。

为了在本地构建文档,你需要安装 Sphinx —— pip install Sphinx 可以完成这项任务。

接着,简单的构建 HTML 文档。在 docs 目录运行 make html (Windows 运行 make.bat html)。

编写文档前,你需要阅读 reStructuredText 指引

本地构建的文档的主题会和 docs.djangoproject.com 上的不同。没事!如果你修改后的文档在本地看起来没啥问题,那么在网站上也会没问题。

文档是如何组成¶

文档被分为以下几个类别:

  • 教程 通过几步手把手的教学帮助读者创建一个小玩意。

    教程的目的是帮助读者尽可能早地实现一些有用的东西,以便给他们带来信心。

    Explain the nature of the problem we’re solving, so that the reader
    understands what we’re trying to achieve. Don’t feel that you need to begin
    with explanations of how things work – what matters is what the reader does,
    not what you explain. It can be helpful to refer back to what you’ve done and
    explain afterwards.

  • 主题指引 旨在在一个较高的层次介绍一个原则或主题。

    Link to reference material rather than repeat it. Use examples and don’t be
    reluctant to explain things that seem very basic to you – it might be the
    explanation someone else needs.

    提供背景信息有助于新人将主题和他们已知的东西联系起来。

  • Reference guides contain technical reference for APIs.
    They describe the functioning of Django’s internal machinery and instruct in
    its use.

    Keep reference material tightly focused on the subject. Assume that the
    reader already understands the basic concepts involved but needs to know or
    be reminded of how Django does it.

    Reference guides aren’t the place for general explanation. If you find
    yourself explaining basic concepts, you may want to move that material to a
    topic guide.

  • How-to guides are recipes that take the reader through
    steps in key subjects.

    What matters most in a how-to guide is what a user wants to achieve.
    A how-to should always be result-oriented rather than focused on internal
    details of how Django implements whatever is being discussed.

    These guides are more advanced than tutorials and assume some knowledge about
    how Django works. Assume that the reader has followed the tutorials and don’t
    hesitate to refer the reader back to the appropriate tutorial rather than
    repeat the same material.

书写格式¶

When using pronouns in reference to a hypothetical person, such as “a user with
a session cookie”, gender neutral pronouns (they/their/them) should be used.
Instead of:

  • 他或她……使用他们。
  • him 或 her… 使用 them。
  • 他的或她的……使用他们的。
  • his 或 hers… 使用 theirs。
  • himself 或 herself… 使用 themselves。

Commonly used terms¶

Here are some style guidelines on commonly used terms throughout the
documentation:

  • Django — when referring to the framework, capitalize Django. It is
    lowercase only in Python code and in the djangoproject.com logo.
  • email — no hyphen.
  • MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite
  • SQL — when referring to SQL, the expected pronunciation should be
    “Ess Queue Ell” and not “sequel”. Thus in a phrase like “Returns an
    SQL expression”, “SQL” should be preceded by “an” and not “a”.
  • Python — when referring to the language, capitalize Python.
  • realize, customize, initialize, etc. — use the American
    “ize” suffix, not “ise.”
  • subclass — it’s a single word without a hyphen, both as a verb
    (“subclass that model”) and as a noun (“create a subclass”).
  • Web, World Wide Web, the Web — note Web is always
    capitalized when referring to the World Wide Web.
  • website — use one word, without capitalization.

Django-specific terminology¶

  • model — it’s not capitalized.
  • template — it’s not capitalized.
  • URLconf — use three capitalized letters, with no space before
    “conf.”
  • view — it’s not capitalized.

Guidelines for reStructuredText files¶

These guidelines regulate the format of our reST (reStructuredText)
documentation:

  • In section titles, capitalize only initial words and proper nouns.

  • Wrap the documentation at 80 characters wide, unless a code example
    is significantly less readable when split over two lines, or for another
    good reason.

  • The main thing to keep in mind as you write and edit docs is that the
    more semantic markup you can add the better. So:

    Add ``django.contrib.auth`` to your ``INSTALLED_APPS``...
    

    Isn’t nearly as helpful as:

    Add :mod:`django.contrib.auth` to your :setting:`INSTALLED_APPS`...
    

    This is because Sphinx will generate proper links for the latter, which
    greatly helps readers.

    You can prefix the target with a ~ (that’s a tilde) to get just the
    “last bit” of that path. So :mod:`~django.contrib.auth` will just
    display a link with the title “auth”.

  • Use intersphinx to reference Python’s and Sphinx’
    documentation.

  • Add .. code-block:: <lang> to literal blocks so that they get
    highlighted. Prefer relying on automatic highlighting simply using ::
    (two colons). This has the benefit that if the code contains some invalid
    syntax, it won’t be highlighted. Adding .. code-block:: python, for
    example, will force highlighting despite invalid syntax.

  • Use these heading styles:

    ===
    One
    ===
    
    Two
    ===
    
    Three
    -----
    
    Four
    ~~~~
    
    Five
    ^^^^
    

Django-specific markup¶

Besides Sphinx’s built-in markup, Django’s docs
define some extra description units:

  • Settings:

    .. setting:: INSTALLED_APPS
    

    To link to a setting, use :setting:`INSTALLED_APPS`.

  • Template tags:

    .. templatetag:: regroup
    

    To link, use :ttag:`regroup`.

  • Template filters:

    .. templatefilter:: linebreaksbr
    

    To link, use :tfilter:`linebreaksbr`.

  • Field lookups (i.e. Foo.objects.filter(bar__exact=whatever)):

    .. fieldlookup:: exact
    

    To link, use :lookup:`exact`.

  • django-admin commands:

    .. django-admin:: migrate
    

    To link, use :djadmin:`migrate`.

  • django-admin command-line options:

    .. django-admin-option:: --traceback
    

    To link, use :option:`command_name --traceback` (or omit command_name
    for the options shared by all commands like --verbosity).

  • Links to Trac tickets (typically reserved for patch release notes):

    :ticket:`12345`
    

Minimizing images¶

Optimize image compression where possible. For PNG files, use OptiPNG and
AdvanceCOMP’s advpng:

$ cd docs/
$ optipng -o7 -zm1-9 -i0 -strip all `find . -type f -not -path "./_build/*" -name "*.png"`
$ advpng -z4 `find . -type f -not -path "./_build/*" -name "*.png"`

This is based on OptiPNG version 0.7.5. Older versions may complain about the
--strip all option being lossy.

一个例子¶

For a quick example of how it all fits together, consider this hypothetical
example:

  • First, the ref/settings.txt document could have an overall layout
    like this:

    ========
    Settings
    ========
    
    ...
    
    .. _available-settings:
    
    Available settings
    ==================
    
    ...
    
    .. _deprecated-settings:
    
    Deprecated settings
    ===================
    
    ...
    
  • Next, the topics/settings.txt document could contain something like
    this:

    You can access a :ref:`listing of all available settings
    <available-settings>`. For a list of deprecated settings see
    :ref:`deprecated-settings`.
    
    You can find both in the :doc:`settings reference document
    </ref/settings>`.
    

    We use the Sphinx doc cross reference element when we want to
    link to another document as a whole and the ref element when
    we want to link to an arbitrary location in a document.

  • Next, notice how the settings are annotated:

    .. setting:: ADMINS
    
    ADMINS
    ======
    
    Default: ``[]`` (Empty list)
    
    A list of all the people who get code error notifications. When
    ``DEBUG=False`` and a view raises an exception, Django will email these people
    with the full exception information. Each member of the list should be a tuple
    of (Full name, email address). Example::
    
        [('John', 'john@example.com'), ('Mary', 'mary@example.com')]
    
    Note that Django will email *all* of these people whenever an error happens.
    See :doc:`/howto/error-reporting` for more information.
    

    This marks up the following header as the “canonical” target for the
    setting ADMINS. This means any time I talk about ADMINS,
    I can reference it using :setting:`ADMINS`.

That’s basically how everything fits together.

拼写检查¶

在提交文档前运行拼写检查是个不错的注意。你需要先装几个包:

Then from the docs directory, run make spelling. Wrong words (if any)
along with the file and line number where they occur will be saved to
_build/spelling/output.txt.

If you encounter false-positives (error output that actually is correct), do
one of the following:

  • Surround inline code or brand/technology names with grave accents (`).
  • 查找拼写检查程序发现的同义词。
  • 如果,只是如果,你确定你的单词拼写是正确的——将其加入 docs/spelling_wordlist (请保持这个列表以字母顺序排列)。

翻译文档¶

查看 本地化 Django 文档,如果你想帮助我们将文档翻译成其它语言。

django-admin man page¶

Sphinx can generate a manual page for the
django-admin command. This is configured in
docs/conf.py. Unlike other documentation output, this man page should be
included in the Django repository and the releases as
docs/man/django-admin.1. There isn’t a need to update this file when
updating the documentation, as it’s updated once as part of the release process.

To generate an updated version of the man page, run make man in the
docs directory. The new man page will be written in
docs/_build/man/django-admin.1.

转载请注明:www.ainoob.cn » Django2.0手册:编写文档

喜欢 (0)or分享 (0)